The China History Podcast

Many people don't know that the first preaching of Christianity in China pre-dated the Jesuits by more than nine centuries.  We'll take a second cursory look at the Jesuits as part of a bigger story that includes Christianity in China during the Tang and Yuan dynasties.  We'll see that prior to the arrival of Matteo Ricci, there were two other lesser known attempts to grow Christianity in China.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

Āluóběn   阿罗本 Nestorian monk who visited Chang'an in 635 CE

Dàqín Jǐngjiào liúxíng Zhōngguó bēi 大秦景教流行中国碑 "A Monument Commemorating the Propagation of the Dàqín Luminous Religion of China" or "The Story of the Coming of the Religion of Light from the West to China."

Jǐngjiào   景教 Nestorian Christianity

Tiānzhǔjiào   天主教 Roman Catholicism "the religion of the Lord of Heaven"

Dōngzhèngjiào   东正教 Eastern Orthodox “the religion of Eastern Truth”

Jīdūjiào 基督教 Protestantism

Jīdū 基督 Christ

jiào 教 religion or teaching

Xīn Jiào 新教   the New religion

Lǐ Shìmín 李世民 2nd son of Li Yuan, the Tang founder

Táng Tàizōng   唐太宗 Taizong Emperor, formerly known as Li Shimin

Fáng Xuánlíng   房玄龄   Chancellor under Taizong

Zhōu Gōng 周公 Duke of Zhou

Dù Rúhuì   杜如晦 Chancellor under Taizong, colleague of Fang Xuanling

Cháng'ān   长安 Capital of Tang Dynasty China (present day Xian)

Jǐngjìng   景淨 Christian monk who wrote the story of Alopen on the Nestorian Stele

Dàqín 大秦 Rome

Xīān 西安 Capital of Shaanxi province, location of ancient of Chang'an

Jǐngjiào bēi   景教碑 The Nestorian Stele (or Tablet)

bēi 碑 a stele or stone tablet or monument.

Fùpíng County Shaanxi   陕西富平县 Northeast of Xian, the place where the stone came from that the Nestorian Stele was made from. Also the ancestral home of President Xi Jinping.

Bēilín Bówùguǎn   碑林博物馆 The Forest of Monuments Museum in Xian

Xīān Wénchāng Gate   西安文昌门 One of the ancient gates of Xian

Táng Wǔzōng   唐武宗 Tang Emperor from 840-846

Huáng Cháo Uprising   黄巢起义 Uprising lasting 881-884, weakened the Tang Dynasty.

Khanbaliq 汗八里 Capital of Yuan Dynasty China. Present day Beijing

Dàdū   大都 Great Capital...other name for Khanbaliq

Hàn Wǔdì   汉武帝 Western Han emperor from 141-87 BCE

Xiàmén   厦门 Ancient port city in Fujian

Quánzhōu   泉州 Another ancient port city in Fujian

Zhū Yuánzhāng   朱元璋 Ming Dynasty founder, also known as the Hongwu Emperor - reigned 1368-1398

Hóngwǔ Emperor 洪武帝 Zhu Yuanzhang, who came from humble beginnings and founded a dynasty.

Xú Guāngqǐ   徐光启 Also known as Paul Hsu, a colleague of Matteo Ricci

Lǐ Zhīzǎo 李之藻 Along with Xu Guangqi and Yang Tingyun, he was one of the Three Pillars of Catholicism in China.

Yáng Tíngyún  杨廷筠 One of the Three Pillars of Catholicism in China

Dorgan   多尔衮 Prince Regent during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor

Shùnzhì   顺治 1st Qing Emperor to rule over China 1643-1661

Kāngxī   康熙 Successor to Shunzhi, the longest reigning Chinese emperor 1661-1722

Yōngzhèng 雍正 Successor to the Kangxi Emperor

Luō Guànzhōng  罗贯中  Author of the classic novel "Romance of the Three Kingdoms

 

MATT SHEEHAN'S CHINAFORNIA NEWSLETTER - CHECK IT OUT HERE

 

JOHN ZHU'S THREE KINGDOMS PODCAST - Click here and check it out

 

Click here for Laszlo's past episode CHP-098-Ricci, Schall von Bell and Verbiest

 

Direct download: CHP-180-The_Earliest_Years_of_Christianity_in_China.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 2:40pm EST

Thanks to Carole in Virginia for giving me enough of a push to get this episode finally produced.  This might have been one of the first ten topics I came up with when I began writing the original list back in 2010.  The history of silk is really an amazing testament to humankind's ingenuity and the randomness of life since Neolithic times. I hope you enjoy this episode.  It turned out to be a much greater story than I was ever aware of.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

Shén Nóng   神农 The Divine Farmer, god of agriculture and many other things

Qīng Dynasty   清朝   The last imperial dynasty in China - 1644-1911

Dèng Xiǎopíng   邓小平 Chairman of China Bridge Association and great Chinese leader during 20th century

Míng Dynasty   明朝 Second to the last dynasty...1368-1644

Táng   唐朝 Dynasty in China 618-907

Ānhuì   安徽 Province in China

Fújiàn   福建 Province in China

Sòng Dynasty   宋朝   Dynasty in China....960-1279

Yǎngsháo Wenhua 仰韶文化 Yangshao Culture in China..5000 to 3000 BCE more or less

Yángshuò County   阳朔县 One of the great sightseeing centers of China, near Guilin

Zhèngzhōu   郑州   City in Henan

Qīngtaí   清台村 Village in the northwest corner of Zhengzhou on the south bank of the Yellow River

Huāxià   华夏 The collective tribes that made up ancient core Han Chinese civilization

Xià County   夏县 County in south Shanxi on the border with Henan

Shānxī province   山西省 Province in China

Qiánshānyàng 钱山漾 town at the south end of Lake Tai near Húzhōu

Shāng Dynasty   商朝 China's first "official dynasty," lasted from 1600 to 1046 BCE

Huángdì   黄帝 The Yellow Emperor

Xī Líng Shì   西陵氏   The discoverer of silk and the primary wife of the Yellow Emperor

Léi Zǔ   嫘祖 Other name of Xi Ling Shi by which she is more commonly known

Cán Nǎinai   蚕奶奶 The Goddess of Silkworms

Cán 蚕 a silk-worm

Kǒngfūzǐ   孔夫子 Confucius

Shǐ Jì 史记Records of the Grand Historian

Jì  礼记 Book of Rites

nǚgōng 女红 the feminine arts

Sūzhōu   苏州 City in Jiangsu Province

Nánjīng   南京   Capital city of Jiangsu province

Chéngdū   成都   The capital city of Sichuan province

Zhāng Qiān   张骞 Great Western Han Dynasty adventurer, instrumental in getting the Silk Road up and running

Hàn Wǔdì   汉武帝 Great Western Han Dynasty emperor

Wǔyí Mountains   武夷山 Mountains in northern Fujian where some of the best tea in the world comes from

Hétián   和田 Formerly called Khotan...a great trading kingdom in present day Xinjiang

Jìn Dynasty   晋朝 Dynasty in China: 265-420 CE

Suí   隋朝 Dynasty in China from 581-618

Cháng'ān   长安 Present day Xian in Shaanxi Province

Qiánlóng   乾隆 Emperor during the heyday of the Qing Dynasty, 1735-1796

 

Frank Lavin's new World War II book: "Home Front to Battlefront"

Web Site: EXPORT NOW if you're looking to break into the China online market with your product.

Website for SupChina.com ......everything you need to know to stay on top of China news......Only 3 minutes is all it takes (unless you read ALL the articles)

 

Direct download: CHP-179-The_Ancient_History_of_Silk.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:35pm EST

In part two of this series examining the forgotten life of William Mesny, we hear the second half of his story in China. We're mostly using author David Leffman's 2016 book "The Mercenary Mandarin"

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Chéngdū   成都 Capital city of Sichuan

Khampa   康巴 Area in eastern Tibet bordering Sichuan

Yúnnán   云南 Southwestern province of China

Huí   回族 Musilm ethnic minority

Guìlín   桂林 Beautiful city in Guangxi

Lí River  漓江   River running through Guilin

Liǔzhōu   柳州 City in Guangxi

Róngshûi   融水 City near Liuzhou

Róng’ān   融安   City near Liuzhou

Dānzhōu   丹州   City near Liuzhou

Miao   苗族 Known as the Hmong in the US, one of China's ethnic minorities

Yáo   瑶族 one of China's ethnic minorities

Dòng   侗族 one of China's ethnic minorities

Zuǒ Zōngtáng   左宗棠 Successful Qing era general

Guìyáng   贵阳 Capital of Guizhou

Chóngqìng   重庆 Formerly part of Sichuan, now a Municipality

Lánzhōu   兰州   Capital of Gansu

Zhìlǐ   治理 Old province of China that no longer exists

Qīnghǎi   青海 Province in West China

Gānsù   甘肃   Province in West China

Níngxià   宁夏 Province in West-Central China

Shǎolín Temple   少林寺   Famous temple in China

Tàiyuán   太原   Capital of Shanxi

Shānxī   山西 Province in China

Bǎodìng   保定   City in Hebei

Lǐ Hóngzhāng   李鸿章 Chinese military leader and diplomat and signer of more than a couple unequal treaties.

Zhuōzhōu   涿州   City south of Beijing in Hebei

Zhāng Zhīdòng    张之洞 Reforming governor of Shanxi

Xīān   西安   Capital of Shaanxi

Qínlǐng Mountains   秦岭山   Mountain chain in southern Shaanxi

Kūnmíng   昆明   Capital of Yunnan

Dōngjīng   东京   Eastern Capital. Can mean Tokyo or Tungking (N. Vietnam)

Anhui   安徽 Province in Eastern China

Hefei   合肥   Capital of Anhui

Guǎngxī   广西   Province in southern China

Xinjiang   新疆  Province in northwest China

Shaanxi   陕西   Province in north-central China

Huangxing Road   黄兴路 Road in Hankou

 

 

The Mercenary Mandarin - amazon link to the book

Link to Blacksmith Books

Link to one of Mesny's Chinese Miscellany (Vol IV)

Link to John Pomfrets book "The Beautiful Country and the Middle Kingdom"

 

 

 

Direct download: CHP-178-William_Mesny_Part_2.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:19pm EST

In this first part of a two-part series we examine the forgotten life of William Mesny. Drawing from author David Leffman's 2016 book "The Mercenary Mandarin," Laszlo discusses an unknown character from the bad old days of late Qing Dynasty China. Though he never made it to the history books, he nonetheless witnessed and took part in a lot of it. Through Mesny we can once again wander through some of Imperial China's worst years.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Qīng 清朝 The Qing Dynasty 1644-1911

Bǎinián guóchǐ   百年国耻 China's Century of Humiliation

Lǐ Hóngzhāng   李鸿章  Famous Chinese military man and diplomat

Màishìní Huá-yīng Huìtōng   麦士尼华英会通  "Mesny's Chinese Miscellany"

Sòng 宋朝 The Song Dynasty

Tàipīng Tiāngguó   太平天国 Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Hóng Xiùquán   洪秀全 The head of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Guǎngxī   广西 Province in Southwest China

Húnán   湖南 Province on Central China

Cháng Shèng Jūn   常胜军 The Ever-Victorious Army

Zhìlǐ   治理 Old province of China that no longer exists

Húguǎng   湖广 Hubei - Hunan and surrounding areas

Liǎngguǎng 两广   Guangdong - Guangxi

Wǔhàn   武汉 Capital City of Hubei Province

Zhènjiāng   镇江 City in southwest Jiangsu

Sūzhõu   苏州   City in Jiangsu, called the Venice of China

Bǎoyīng   宝应 County in central Jiangsu

Jiāngsū 江苏 Coastal province in China

Yángzhōu   扬州 City in Jiangsu

Nânjīng   南京   Capital city of Jiangsu

Hànkǒu   汉口 City in Hubei, the "Han" in Wuhan

Wǔchāng   武昌 City in Hubei, the "Wu" of Wuhan

Hànyáng 汉阳 City in Hubei, part of Wuhan

Chóngqìng 重庆 Used to be part of Sichuan, now a municipality

Niǎn Jūn Qǐ   捻军起义 The Nian Rebellion lasted from 1851 – 1868.

Miáo Rebellion   苗民起义 Three different rebellions share this name

Guìzhōu   贵州   Mountainous interior province in West China

Zuǒ Zōngtáng   左宗棠 Famous and very successful general during the Qing

Dungan Revolt 同治回辩 Tóngzhì Huí Biàn   Another in a long line of Muslim wars , this one against Yaqub Beg in the northwest of China.

Xīnjiāng   新疆 Province in northwest China

Zūnyì   遵义 City in Guizhou

Táng Jiǒng   唐炯 Governor of Sichuan and early benefactor of Mesny

Chóng'ān River   崇安河 River in Guizhou where Mesny's bridge stands

Shāndōng   山东 Coastal province in China

Jìnán   济南   Capital city of Shandong

Dīng Bǎozhēn  丁宝桢 Governor of Sichuan Province

Gōng Bǎo Jī Dīng   宫保鸡丁 Kung Pao Chicken

Gōng Bǎo   宫保 Palace Guardian

 

 

Direct download: CHP-177-William_Mesny_Part_1.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:16pm EST

CHP-176-The History of the Teochew People

In this episode Laszlo explains a little about the "Gagi Nang", the 自己人, known the world over as the Teochew (Chiu Chow or Chaozhou) people. Like the Hakka people, the Teochew's were originally from the Yellow River Valley and migrated to their present location on the Guangdong coast via Fujian province. Their language and culture is unique. Their food and Chaozhou culture is celebrated in more places than Chaozhou and not just by the people from that region. There are Chaozhounese people on every continent except maybe Antarctica. They're a proud group of people with a collective track record that is admirable by any standards of human achievement. The only mentions in this episode were of the Teochew's of South East Asia and the US. There are plenty of other lesser known or unknown histories of Teochew's in Canada, Europe, Mexico, Central and South America and of course Australia and New Zealand. The great 19th century Chinese diaspora is filled with stories, legends and historic events. The Chiu Chow people are a major part of everything that happened. They contributed not only to the society and the economy of their adoptive homelands, they still kept their ties with the eight districts of Chao-Shan.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

 Teochew People 潮州人

Gaginang 自己人 What Teochew's call themselves in their dialect ("Our People")

Hakka People 客家人

Chaozhou   潮州 Mandarin pronunciation

Chiu Chow 潮州   Cantonese pronunciation

Chaoshan   潮汕 The term for the Chaozhou-Shantou-Jieyang region

Shantou   汕头 Port city of the Chaoshan region

Swatow   汕头 Shantou in the Teochew dialect

Jieyang   揭阳 The 3rd city to make up the Chaoshan region

Meizhou   梅州   Homeland of the Hakka people, located in Guangdong

Jin Dynasty 晋朝 Dynasty that ran 265-420 CE

Jürchen Jin dynasty 金朝 The dynasty that replaced the Northern Song 1115-1234

Henan   河南 Province of China

Shanxi   山西   Province of China

Han River 韩江 One of the three rivers of Chaoshan

Huanggang River   黃冈河 One of the three rivers of Chaoshan

Rong River  榕江 One of the three rivers of Chaoshan

Wu Hu  五胡 The Five Barbarian tribes

Han Dynasty  汉朝 Ancient dynasty of China 206 BCE - 220 CE

Xiongnu   匈奴 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Xianbei   鲜卑 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Jie 羯 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Qiang  羌 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia (and Tibet)

Di  氐 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Jiangnan  江南 South of the Yangzi River (Southern China)

Tang dynasty  唐朝 Dynasty of China 618 - 907

Fujian   福建 Southeast coastal province of China

Quanzhou   泉州 City in southern Fujian

Putian   莆田   City in southern Fujian

Yuan dynasty   元朝   Mongol-run Dynasty of China 1271-1368

Guangdong province   广东 Southernmost province of continental China

Wu  沪  The dialect of Shanghai and the surrounding region

Yue  粤 The Cantonese dialect

Xiang   湘   The Hunanese dialect

Gan   赣   The dialect of the Jiangxi region

Hakka   客家   The dialect of the Hakka people

Min   闽   The dialects of Fujian

Min River 闽江   The main river of Fujian

Minbei   闽北 North of the Min River

Minnan  闽南   South of the Min River

Hokkien  福建   Pronunciation of Fujian in the local dialect (and the people of course)

Xiamen  厦门 Major city in south Fujian

Zhangzhou  漳州  Major city in south Fujian

Hoklo 福佬  Cantonese for Fujian people

Fulao 福佬  The Mandarin pronunciation of Hoklo

He Luo 河洛 (also 河老) Another way of writing Hoklo

Fujian ren   福建人 Someone from Fujian

Hoa Kieu 华侨 Overseas Chinese (Vietnamese)

Qin Shihuang  秦始皇 First emperor of China 220 - 210 BCE

Nanhai Commandery  南海郡 The 郡 or commandery located in southern Guangdong

Zhou dynasty  周朝 Ancient dynasty of China 1046 - 256 BCE

Zhao Tuo   赵陀 Former Qin general who set up the Nanyue Kingdom in Southern China and Northern Vietnam

Nanyue Kingdom   南越国 A kingdom that lasted from 204 - 111 BCE

Han Emperor Wu   汉武帝 Han Dynasty emperor whose forces conquered the Nanyue and reigned 141 - 87 BCE

Sui  隋 Dynasty in China that preceded the Tang 581 - 618 CE

Emperor Wen of Sui   隋文帝 Founding emperor of the Sui

Chao Prefecture  潮州 Set up in 590, where Chaozhou got its name

Zhou 州 An ancient name for a prefecture

Chao’an County 潮安县 Set up during the Republic of China

Wenhua  文化   culture

Qianlong emperor 乾隆帝 Qing emperor reigned 1735-1796

Taiping Rebellion   太平天国运动 Violent upheaval in China lasting from 1850-1864

She Youjin 佘有进 Seah Eu Chin 1805 - 1883 - early Singapore Teochew community leader

She   佘 A Chinese surname (rhymes with 蛇)

Yu   余 The Chiense surname Yu......but compare it to the She above.

Liu Song Dynasty 刘宋朝 Dynasty in southern China during the Nanbei Chao 420-479

Nanbei Chao   南北朝 The Southern & Northern Dynasties period

Ngee Ann Kongsi (Yi'an Gongsi) 義安公司 Charitable foundation in Singapore

Chaozhou Bayi Huiguan 潮州八邑会馆 The Singapore Eight Districts Association

Chaoshan cai   潮汕菜 Term used to describe the food of the Chaoshan region

Rougucha 肉骨茶 a kind of a Chaozhou style meat soup

Lushui E   卤水鹅 Fine tasting Chaozhou goose dish....dip it in vinegar...The Ultimate umami!

dongxie   潮州冻蟹 A kind of crab in the shell (of course) eaten cold

Yao Ming   姚明 China basketball great and NBA superstar. Also a major anti-shark's fin soup crusader.

Yulu 鱼露 Nước mắm in Vietnamese, Fish Sauce in English

Shacha Sauce 沙茶醬 made from soybean oil, shallots, dried fish, dried shrimp and a nice kick of chili and garlic. Satay sauce

Chaozhou Guotiao 潮州粿条   hủ tiếu in Vietnamese, often spelled in English "Kway Teow"

Gongfu cha   工夫茶 A kind of tea service and traditional Chaozhou tea custom.

Tieguanyin   铁观音 The preferred tea for Chaozhou style gongfu tea.

Dancong Cha   蚕丛茶 Another kind of tea from the Chaoshan region of Guangdong. Not easy to get.

Chao Ju   潮剧 Chaozhou Opera

Nanxi  南戏 Southern Drama that was popular during the Later Song

Kun Qu  昆曲 Kun opera, the oldest form of Chinese opera

Tan   陈 Teochew for Chen, the #1 most popular Teochew surname

Lim   林 Teochew for Lin, the #2 most popular Teochew surname

Ng 黄 Teochew for Huang, the #3 most popular Teochew surname

Goh 吴 Teochew for Wu, the #4 most popular Teochew surname

Tay 郑 Teochew for Zheng, the #5 most popular Teochew surname

Li 李 Teochew for Li, the #6 most popular Teochew surname

Sir Li Ka-shing   李嘉诚爵士 Featured in CHP episode 13.

Wang Jianlin   王健林 Asia's reigning champion for richest man, founder and chairman of the Dalian Wanda Group.

Guangyuan 广元 Town in northeast Sichuan province

Wu Zetian   武则天 Amazing lady from the Tang dynasty, China's only real true empress

Joseph Lau 劉鑾雄 Boss of Chinese Estates Holdings

Lim Por-yen 林百欣  Lin Baixin... Boss of the Lai Sun Group

Albert Yeung...杨受成 Yang Shoucheng The main guy at the Emperor Group

Vincent Lo... 罗康瑞 Luo Kangrui of Sino Land (who gave us Shanghai's Xintiandi)

Xie Guomin 谢国民 Dhanin Chearavanont - Thailand's richest man and CP Group boss (sorry for mispronouncing his name)

Ma Huateng   马化腾 Pony Ma, founder of Ten Cent (騰訊控股有限公司) who gave us WeChat and QQ

David Tran 陈德 Họ Trần  Legendary founder of the company that gave us Sriracha sauce with the green bottle cap.

Huy Fong Foods   汇丰食品公司 David Tran's company, located in Irwindale, California

Zou ma kan hua   走马看花 To look at the flowers while riding a horse....a very superficial view.

  

Charles Antoine de Rouve and Jerome Scemla directed documentary La Guerre du Thé...Tea Wars

LINK TO WEBSITE

 

 

John Pomfret's new book

Amazon link to "The Beautiful Country and the Middle Kingdom"

 

PLEASE ALSO CHECK OUT:

THE CHINA VINTAGE HOUR

AND

THE CHINESE SAYINGS PODCAST

 

BOTH ARE NEW SHOWS FROM TEACUP MEDIA

Direct download: CHP-176-The_History_of_the_Teochew_People.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:08pm EST

CHP-175-Su Dongpo

In this 175th episode Laszlo gives the great Northern Song jack-of-all-literary-trades Su Dongpo the once over. This isn't meant to be a deep dive into the reasons for all his renown in literature, calligraphy and painting. Instead, this is just a "popular Chinese historical" overview of who he was and the times he lived in.  And for those who never heard of him, this is a good intro. In America we have Washington Irving, Mark Twain, Hemingway and so on. In China....Su Shi would be mentioned when rattling off their best of the best. He was definitely a major guy not only in the Song, but in the overall world of Chinese culture as well.  The list of terms from this episode is particularly long this time.  You can see them below in the approximate order of their mention.  If you're interested to check out some of his poetry, here's an amazon link to a book of his poems translated by Burton Watson: Selected Poems of Su T'ung-P'o

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

 Ouyang Xiu 欧阳修 1007-1072 Northern Song statesman, historian, calligrapher, literatus extraordinaire

Wang Xizhi   王羲之 Called arguably the greatest Chinese calligrapher

Zhou   周 1046 BCE - 256 BCE Ancient dynasty of China

Han   汉   206 BCE - 220 CE Ancient dynasty of China

Jin   晋 265-420 Ancient dynasty of China

Sui   隋 581-618 Ancient dynasty of China

Tang 唐 618-907 Ancient dynasty of China

Song   宋 960-1279 Ancient dynasty of China

Kaifeng   开封 Capital of the Northern Song dynasty 960-1127

Northern Song 北宋 960-1127

Huizong   徽宗 The Northern Song emperor who "lost China" to the Jürchens

Su Dongpo   苏东坡 1037 - 1101 Our subject in this episode

Su Shi   苏轼 Su Dongpo's birth name

Tang Song Ba Da Jia   唐宋八大家 "Eight Great Men of Letters of the Tang and Song Dynasty

Han Yu   韩愈 768-824 - Tang essayist and poet. Major influence in development of Chinese literature

Liu Zongyuan 柳宗元 773-819 Tang waster of prose and poetry

Su Xun 苏洵 1009-1066 - Great man of letters and Father of Su Shi and Su Zhe

Su Zhe 苏辙   1039-1112 - Brother of Su Shi, also a great man of letters

Wang Anshi   王安石 1021-1086 - Song statesman and father of far reaching reforms. Also a great literary figure in his day.

Zeng Gong   曾鞏 1019-1083 - Great prose master of the Song

Hangzhou   杭州 Capital of Zhejiang and of dynasties past. Su Dongpo served there twice

Zhejiang   浙江 Province in east China

Meishan   眉山 City south of Chengdu, birthplace of the Three Su's, Su Xun, Su Dongpo and Su Zhe.

Min River 岷江 Yangzi tributary river in Sichuan, famous for the Duijangyan irrigation system

Leshan 乐山 City in Sichuan

Ya'an   雅安 Great tea city near Chengdu in Sichuan

Chengdu   成都 Ancient capital of Shu Kingdom, now capital of Sichuan

jinshi   进士   The highest degree that allowed you to fill the top positions in government

Wang Fu 王弗 1039-1065 - First wife of Su Dongpo

Henan  河南 Province in north China where it all began

doucha   斗茶 "Tea Battles" that were popular during the Song

Wang Runzhi   王闰之 1048-1093 2nd wife of Su Dongpo

Su Di   苏堤 the Su Causeway across West Lake in Hangzhou

Xin Fa   新法 The New Policies championed by the Shenzong Emperor and Wang Anshi

Shenzong    神宗 1048-1085 - Northern Song Emperor and Wang Anshi supporter

Sima Guang   司马光 1019-1086 Conservative Song scholar and official, writer of the Zizhi Tongijan

Luoyang   洛阳 City in Henan and former ancient capital of past dynasties.

Cheng Yi 程颐  One of the pride of Luoyang, Chinese philosopher

Zizhi Tongjian, the "Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance" A monumental historical work covering Chinese history from 403 BCE to 959 CE

Wutai Poem Incident 乌台诗案 In 1079, a poem by Su Shi got him in trouble and exiled fron the capital.

Huangzhou 黄州 Former name of Huanggang, now a district of that city

Hubei   湖北 Central province in China, capital is at Wuhan

Huanggang   黄冈 City just east of Wuhan in Hubei Province

Dongpo 东坡 Eastern slope

Dongpo Jushi 东坡居士 Dongpo, the retired scholar or Buddhist.

Chibi Fu   赤壁赋 Ode to Red Cliffs, famous poem by Su Shi

Hou Chibi Fu   后赤壁赋   The Later Ode to Red Cliffs, famous poem by Su Shi

Nian Nujiao Chibi Huaigu 念奴娇赤壁怀古 Remembering Chibi, Su Shi's third poem in this series about Red Cliffs

Zhuge Liang   诸葛亮 Great Shu-Han strategist during Three Kingdoms Period

Lu Su 鲁肃 Politician and general who worked for Sun Quan

Zhou Yu 周瑜 One of Sun Quan's main generals

Cheng Pu 程普 Another of Sun Quan's main generals

Sun Quan 孙权 Emperor of Eastern Wu, one of the Three Kingdoms

Liu Bei   刘备 Emperor of Shu Han, one of the Three Kingdoms

Cao Cao   曹操 King of Wei, one of the Three Kingdoms

Fu 赋 One of the three main types of Chinese Poetry, like rhymed prose

Ci 词 One of the three main types of Chinese Poetry, like lyric poetry

Han Shi Tie 寒食帖 Su Shi's most famous calligraphic work, now hanging in the National Palace Museum in Taipei

Huang Tingjian   黄庭坚 1045-1105 artist, scholar, official, a great Northern Song Master

Mi Fu 米芾 1051-1107 Great Song painter and calligrapher

Cai Xiang   蔡襄 1012-1067 One of the great calligraphers of the Northern Song

Song Si Jia 宋四家 the Four Great Calligraphers of the Song

Han Shi 寒食 is the holiday that occurs right before Qingming in April

Yan Zhenqing 颜真卿 708-785 Great calligrapher of the Tang and one of the greatest of all time

Zhezong 哲宗 Northern Song emperor, Reigned 1085-1100

Empress Dowager Gao 高太皇后 1032-1093 Empress of Northern Song emperor Yingzong, regent for Zhezong during his minority.

Dongpo Rou 东坡肉 Dongpo Pork

Zuo Zongtang 左宗棠   Hunan-born general from the Qing, the man who brought us General Tso's Chicken

Lou Wai Lou 楼外楼 Not the best restaurant in Hangzhou but one of the most famous. Been around over one hundred fifty years

Ni Zan, the late Yuan-early Ming painter.

Xu Wei, the Ming painter

Yuan Mei, the Qing dynasty scholar and artist.

Yuanyou era 元祐 Conservative era in Emperor Zhezong's reign that lasted 1086 to 1093

Huizhou 惠州 City in Guangdong where Su Dongpo served a stint

Hainan   海南 Island province off the coast of Guangdong

Danzhou   儋州 Coastal city in Hainan just west of Haikou

Haikou   海口 Capital city of Hainan

Dongpo Shuyuan   东坡书院

Wang Zhaoyun   王朝云 1062-1095 - 3rd wife of Su Dongpo

Changzhou   常州 City in Jiangsu

Jiangsu   江苏 Coastal province just north of Zhejiang

Cai Jing   蔡京 Long serving chancellor to Emperor Huizong

Cai Tao 蔡绦 Son of Cai Jing who had the audacity to say something nice about Su Dongpo

Shi 诗 The word meaning all Chinese poetry but also a specific kind as well.

Su Men Si Xueshi 苏门四学士 The Four Scholars at Su Shi's Gate

Zhang Lei   张耒 1054-1114 One of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Chao Buzhi 晁补之 One of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Qin Guan   秦观 1049-1100 - Northern Song writer and poet. Also one of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Jin 金朝 The Jin Dynasty of the Jürchens 1115-1234

 

Direct download: CHP-175-Su_Dongpo.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:51pm EST

CHP-174-The Pirate Queen Zheng Yi Sao

In this latest episode Laszlo finally gets around to the oft requested subject of piracy in early 19th century China.  Pirates had been a fact of life going back to the most olden days. Mid to late Qing Dynasty the amount of trade being plied on the China coast attracted pirates like never before.  Zheng Yi Sao ("Zheng Yi's Wife") was a tough woman from the Pearl River Delta who married the most notorious pirate of his day Zheng Yi.  Upon Zheng Yi's death, his widow took control of his massive pirate fleet.  With her adopted son, and later husband Cheung Po Tsai, she controlled what as, at the time, the largest pirate fleet that preyed on coastal dwellers and vessels engaged in trade. She later became an inspiration for many characters that appeared in books, movies, video games and other media.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Zheng Shi 郑氏 Madame Zheng, Widow Zheng

Zheng Yi Sao 郑一嫂 Zheng Yi Sao, wife of Zheng Yi

haidao   海盗 pirate

Zhejiang   浙江 East coast province of China

Guangdong   广东  Southernmost province of continental China

Tây Sơn Rebellion   Major uprising in Vietnam from 1770 to 1802

Binh Dinh Province   South central coastal province in Vietnam

Da Nang   Vietnam's 3rd largest city

Nha Trang   Coastal city in Vietnam

Xishan   西山 West Mountain (Tây Sơn in Vietnamese)

Guangxi   广西 One province over from Guangdong

Shi   石 Common Chinese surname, means stone

Ma 马Another common Chinese surname, means horse

Xu   徐 Common Chinese surname. I always get it mixed up with 许.

Shi Xianggu   石香姑 Zheng Yi Sao's real name

Xinhui   新会 City near Jiangmen

Tanka or Danjia   疍家 The boat dwelling people of south China and Fujian

shuishang ren 水上人 people who live on the water

Zheng Yi   郑一 South Seas pirate who ran the Red Flag Fleet. Married Shi Xianggu

Red Flag Fleet  红旗帮 Hóngqí Bāng.

Cheung Po Tsai  张保仔 Zhang Bâozâi

Jing Hai fen ji  靖海氛记 Charles F. Neumann's "The Pirates who Infested the China Sea from 1807 to 1810.

Jiaqing emperor   嘉庆帝 Qing emperor 1796 - 1820

Daoguang emperor   道光帝 Qing emperor 1820 - 1850

Ming Jiajing Emperor   明嘉靖帝 Ming emperor 1521 - 1567

Lantau 大屿山 Island that is part of the Hong Kong SAR

Cheung Chau  - Changzhou 长洲 Island off the coast of Lantau

Humen  虎门 Located at the mouth of the Pearl River Delta

Chow Yun-fat  周润发 Great Actor who played Sau Feng, one of the Pirate Lords from Disney's P of the C movie Part 3.

Qiongzhou Strait 琼州海峡 Body of water that separates Hainan from Guangdong

 

 

Direct download: CHP-174-The_Pirate_Queen_Zheng_Yi_Sao.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:35pm EST

CHP-173- The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 3

Laszlo offers up the exciting conclusion to the 3-part series introducing the Tong Wars.  

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

Wanguo Jinyanhui huizhi 万国禁烟会会址 Meeting place of the International Opium Commission

weiji   危机   A crisis

Charlie Boston 李观长 One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Tom Lee  李希龄  Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

Xinhai Revolution   辛亥革命   The event that toppled the Qing Dynasty in 1911.

Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. Directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence.

Chong Pon Sing   The president of the Hip Sings, bumped off by the On Leongs

Yee Toy 余才 A Hip Sing soldier involved in a few of their most daring hits

Gin Gum   Another high ranking On Leong and later right hand man to Tom Lee

Kim Lan Association   金兰公所 A part of the Chee Kung Tong (Hongmen) made up of mostly Hip Sings

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations

Fong Foo Leung   the Hip Sing national president

Chin Jack Lem   An On Leong whose defection to the Hip Sings sparked a Tong War

zhi baobuzhu huo   纸包不住火 An old Chinese saying that says "paper can't wrap a fire"

Zhongguo Huiguan 中国会馆 The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association...

Lee Gee Min  Officer for the On Leong’s

Wong Get 黄傑 A Hip Sing everyman...Used by reforming politicians to rat out the On Leongs and by his fellow Hip Sing tong brothers to make things difficult for the On Leongs.

Frank Moy   head of the Chicago branch of the On Leong’s

Tung On Society 东安会馆 Another society made up mostly of seamen

Jiu Yi Ba  九一八 the Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931.

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

 

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

 

The Tong Wars book home page

 

Article from Signature Magazine that explains the Turf Wars in NY Chinatown .

 

 

 

 

 

Direct download: CHP-173-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_3.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:54pm EST

CHP-172-The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 2

In this Part 2 episode the Tong Wars begin in earnest.  The first and second Tong Wars are discussed.  

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

The Tong Wars book home page

Article from Signature Magazine that explains the Turf Wars in NY Chinatown

 

"Wish Lanterns - Young Lives in New China"

Alec Ash - UK Amazon link to Wish Lanterns

 

21st Century China Program - UC San Diego

Link to their Website

Link to the China 21 Podcast

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Lung Kin was a Hip Sing member who was the first to get shot in the First Tong War

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

Gong Wing Chung The On Leong soldier charged with Lung Kin's murder

Sin Cue An On Leong, first a suspect in a 1900 murder and later a victim of a Hip Sing hit to prevent him from testifying against Mock Duck

Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. Directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence.

Tom Lee  李希龄  Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Sue Sing   a Hip Sing charged with the murder of Ah Fee, got sentenced to life in the Sing Sing Correctional Facility

Lee Sing An On Leong highbinder from Dedham, Massachusetts. Tried to bump off Mock Duck in 1904.

Zhongguo Huiguan 中国会馆 The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association

Charlie Boston 李观长 One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Chu Gong 赵昂 High ranking On Leong officer

Gin Gum   Another high ranking On Leong and later right hand man to Tom Lee

Hop Lee A Hip Sing laundryman brutally killed by the On Leongs in a retaliation murder.

Shah Kai-fu 夏偕复The Chinese Consul based in the US.

mo mentai, mo mentai 没问题,没问题 Cantonese for no problem, no problem

boo-how-doy / futou zai 斧头仔 Term was used to describe hatchet men contracted from out of town. Also another name for a highbinder.

Leon Ling Charged with the murder of Bow Kum but escaped and was never found.

Chu Gain Proprietor of The Port Arthur Restaurant who was carrying on with Bow Kum at the time of her murder.

Lung Kong Tin Yee Gong Shaw / Longgang Qinyi Gongsuo 龙岗亲义公所Early name of the Four Brothers Society

See Sing Tong / The Sixing Tang 四姓堂 The Four Surnames Society

Sixing 四姓Four surnames.

Lau / Liu 刘 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Kwan / Guan 关 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Cheung / Zhang 张 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Chu / Zhao 赵 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations


Bow Kum 包金(?) A China-born consort whose murder in 1909 sparked the Second Tong War between the On Leongs and the Four Brothers Society. 

Lau Tong Four Brothers member charged with the murder of Bow Kum

Lau Shong Four Brothers member charged with the murder of Bow Kum

Gun Kee Four Brothers member shot and wounded in front of On Leong headquarters by a cousin of Tom Lee.


Ah Hoon   An On Leong who was also a Four Brothers member. A well known comedian in his day. Shot and killed in 1909. 

fan tan 番摊 The game of games for Chinatown gamblers...a game of skill and guessing. Also called Chinese Roulette.

pi-gow 牌九 A Chinese domino-based game of chance

Direct download: CHP-172-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_2.1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 10:30pm EST

CHP-171-The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 1

In this long awaited and oft requested episode Laszlo explains about the Tong Wars of New York's Chinatown. With the help of Scott Seligman's latest book we go back to late 19th - early 20th century America and focus on New York's Chinatown.  These were terribly unpleasant days for most citizens of Chinese ancestry and especially for those immigrants who either had not begun the process or lived in the shadows illegally. The Chinese Exclusion Laws tarred these citizens like no other immigrant group in US history. The Tong Wars didn't happen because of these laws but they were certainly part of the story.  With everything Chinese-Americans have done to make America great over the past century it's interesting to look back at another time when the ordinary law abiding Chinese and the bloodiest tong soldier were equally reviled in society that was loath to accept them. The book is called "Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown" by Scott D. Seligman.

Terms from this Episode

Qing Chao monian 清朝末年The last years of the Qing Dynasty

Mao Zedong 毛泽东   Chairman Mao

Shaoshan 韶山   Birthplace of Chairman Mao, in Hunan

Toisan   台山 City in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Hoiping   开平 Another city in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Sun-wui   新会 Another city in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Wong Chin Foo   王清福 First to use the term Chinese American. His life was featured in CHP episode 136.

Wo Kee Early Chinatown Merchant also known as Wong Ah Chung

Wong Ah Chung Real name (maybe) of the "pre-Tom Lee" Chinatown personality known as Wo Kee

Wung Ah Ling 李希 (Tom Lee) Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Loon Yee Tong 联谊堂 Cantonese for the Lianyi Tang a.k.a. Chee Kung Tong (致公堂) Society that went back to the Qing dynasty///also known as The Chinese Masons and The Hongmen

Lianyi Tang   联谊堂 Mandarin pronunciation of the Loon Yee Tong

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations

Lee Sing 利胜 Chinatown merchant on Pell who publicly assaulted Tom Lee and got away with it

fan tan 番摊 The game of games for Chinatown gamblers...a game of skill and guessing. Also called Chinese Roulette.

pi-gow 牌九 A Chinese domino-based game of chance

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

An Liang Tang   安良堂 Mandarin pronunciation of the On Leong Tong

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

Xie Sheng Tang   协勝堂 Hip Sing in Mandarin

Lee Toy   李彩 Tom Lee's nephew and chief tough guy in the On Leongs

Lee Quon Jung 李观长 a.k.a. Charlie Boston One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Yuet Sing Another wealthy On Leong merchant in Chinatown 

Wong Get 黄傑 A Hip Sing everyman...Used by reforming politicians to rat out the On Leongs and by his fellow Hip Sing tong brothers to make things difficult for the On Leongs.

Mai De a.k.a. Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. A slippery as an eel and hard to pin down by the authorities...directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence

Lung Kin was a Hip Sing member who was the first to get shot in the First Tong War

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

 

The Tong Wars book home page

 

"Wish Lanterns - Young Lives in New China"

Alec Ash - UK Amazon link to Wish Lanterns

 

supchina.com - New Home of the great Sinica Podcast and a wonderful place to stay in daily touch with what's up in China.

 

Direct download: CHP-171-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_1R.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:14am EST