The China History Podcast
CHP-173- The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 3

Laszlo offers up the exciting conclusion to the 3-part series introducing the Tong Wars.  

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

Wanguo Jinyanhui huizhi 万国禁烟会会址 Meeting place of the International Opium Commission

weiji   危机   A crisis

Charlie Boston 李观长 One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Tom Lee  李希龄  Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

Xinhai Revolution   辛亥革命   The event that toppled the Qing Dynasty in 1911.

Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. Directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence.

Chong Pon Sing   The president of the Hip Sings, bumped off by the On Leongs

Yee Toy 余才 A Hip Sing soldier involved in a few of their most daring hits

Gin Gum   Another high ranking On Leong and later right hand man to Tom Lee

Kim Lan Association   金兰公所 A part of the Chee Kung Tong (Hongmen) made up of mostly Hip Sings

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations

Fong Foo Leung   the Hip Sing national president

Chin Jack Lem   An On Leong whose defection to the Hip Sings sparked a Tong War

zhi baobuzhu huo   纸包不住火 An old Chinese saying that says "paper can't wrap a fire"

Zhongguo Huiguan 中国会馆 The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association...

Lee Gee Min  Officer for the On Leong’s

Wong Get 黄傑 A Hip Sing everyman...Used by reforming politicians to rat out the On Leongs and by his fellow Hip Sing tong brothers to make things difficult for the On Leongs.

Frank Moy   head of the Chicago branch of the On Leong’s

Tung On Society 东安会馆 Another society made up mostly of seamen

Jiu Yi Ba  九一八 the Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931.

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

 

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

 

The Tong Wars book home page

 

Article from Signature Magazine that explains the Turf Wars in NY Chinatown .

 

 

 

 

 

Direct download: CHP-173-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_3.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:54pm EDT

CHP-172-The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 2

In this Part 2 episode the Tong Wars begin in earnest.  The first and second Tong Wars are discussed.  

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

The Tong Wars book home page

Article from Signature Magazine that explains the Turf Wars in NY Chinatown

 

"Wish Lanterns - Young Lives in New China"

Alec Ash - UK Amazon link to Wish Lanterns

 

21st Century China Program - UC San Diego

Link to their Website

Link to the China 21 Podcast

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Lung Kin was a Hip Sing member who was the first to get shot in the First Tong War

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

Gong Wing Chung The On Leong soldier charged with Lung Kin's murder

Sin Cue An On Leong, first a suspect in a 1900 murder and later a victim of a Hip Sing hit to prevent him from testifying against Mock Duck

Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. Directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence.

Tom Lee  李希龄  Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Sue Sing   a Hip Sing charged with the murder of Ah Fee, got sentenced to life in the Sing Sing Correctional Facility

Lee Sing An On Leong highbinder from Dedham, Massachusetts. Tried to bump off Mock Duck in 1904.

Zhongguo Huiguan 中国会馆 The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association

Charlie Boston 李观长 One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Chu Gong 赵昂 High ranking On Leong officer

Gin Gum   Another high ranking On Leong and later right hand man to Tom Lee

Hop Lee A Hip Sing laundryman brutally killed by the On Leongs in a retaliation murder.

Shah Kai-fu 夏偕复The Chinese Consul based in the US.

mo mentai, mo mentai 没问题,没问题 Cantonese for no problem, no problem

boo-how-doy / futou zai 斧头仔 Term was used to describe hatchet men contracted from out of town. Also another name for a highbinder.

Leon Ling Charged with the murder of Bow Kum but escaped and was never found.

Chu Gain Proprietor of The Port Arthur Restaurant who was carrying on with Bow Kum at the time of her murder.

Lung Kong Tin Yee Gong Shaw / Longgang Qinyi Gongsuo 龙岗亲义公所Early name of the Four Brothers Society

See Sing Tong / The Sixing Tang 四姓堂 The Four Surnames Society

Sixing 四姓Four surnames.

Lau / Liu 刘 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Kwan / Guan 关 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Cheung / Zhang 张 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Chu / Zhao 赵 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations


Bow Kum 包金(?) A China-born consort whose murder in 1909 sparked the Second Tong War between the On Leongs and the Four Brothers Society. 

Lau Tong Four Brothers member charged with the murder of Bow Kum

Lau Shong Four Brothers member charged with the murder of Bow Kum

Gun Kee Four Brothers member shot and wounded in front of On Leong headquarters by a cousin of Tom Lee.


Ah Hoon   An On Leong who was also a Four Brothers member. A well known comedian in his day. Shot and killed in 1909. 

fan tan 番摊 The game of games for Chinatown gamblers...a game of skill and guessing. Also called Chinese Roulette.

pi-gow 牌九 A Chinese domino-based game of chance

Direct download: CHP-172-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_2.1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 10:30pm EDT

CHP-171-The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 1

In this long awaited and oft requested episode Laszlo explains about the Tong Wars of New York's Chinatown. With the help of Scott Seligman's latest book we go back to late 19th - early 20th century America and focus on New York's Chinatown.  These were terribly unpleasant days for most citizens of Chinese ancestry and especially for those immigrants who either had not begun the process or lived in the shadows illegally. The Chinese Exclusion Laws tarred these citizens like no other immigrant group in US history. The Tong Wars didn't happen because of these laws but they were certainly part of the story.  With everything Chinese-Americans have done to make America great over the past century it's interesting to look back at another time when the ordinary law abiding Chinese and the bloodiest tong soldier were equally reviled in society that was loath to accept them. The book is called "Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown" by Scott D. Seligman.

Terms from this Episode

Qing Chao monian 清朝末年The last years of the Qing Dynasty

Mao Zedong 毛泽东   Chairman Mao

Shaoshan 韶山   Birthplace of Chairman Mao, in Hunan

Toisan   台山 City in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Hoiping   开平 Another city in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Sun-wui   新会 Another city in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Wong Chin Foo   王清福 First to use the term Chinese American. His life was featured in CHP episode 136.

Wo Kee Early Chinatown Merchant also known as Wong Ah Chung

Wong Ah Chung Real name (maybe) of the "pre-Tom Lee" Chinatown personality known as Wo Kee

Wung Ah Ling 李希 (Tom Lee) Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Loon Yee Tong 联谊堂 Cantonese for the Lianyi Tang a.k.a. Chee Kung Tong (致公堂) Society that went back to the Qing dynasty///also known as The Chinese Masons and The Hongmen

Lianyi Tang   联谊堂 Mandarin pronunciation of the Loon Yee Tong

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations

Lee Sing 利胜 Chinatown merchant on Pell who publicly assaulted Tom Lee and got away with it

fan tan 番摊 The game of games for Chinatown gamblers...a game of skill and guessing. Also called Chinese Roulette.

pi-gow 牌九 A Chinese domino-based game of chance

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

An Liang Tang   安良堂 Mandarin pronunciation of the On Leong Tong

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

Xie Sheng Tang   协勝堂 Hip Sing in Mandarin

Lee Toy   李彩 Tom Lee's nephew and chief tough guy in the On Leongs

Lee Quon Jung 李观长 a.k.a. Charlie Boston One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Yuet Sing Another wealthy On Leong merchant in Chinatown 

Wong Get 黄傑 A Hip Sing everyman...Used by reforming politicians to rat out the On Leongs and by his fellow Hip Sing tong brothers to make things difficult for the On Leongs.

Mai De a.k.a. Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. A slippery as an eel and hard to pin down by the authorities...directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence

Lung Kin was a Hip Sing member who was the first to get shot in the First Tong War

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

 

The Tong Wars book home page

 

"Wish Lanterns - Young Lives in New China"

Alec Ash - UK Amazon link to Wish Lanterns

 

supchina.com - New Home of the great Sinica Podcast and a wonderful place to stay in daily touch with what's up in China.

 

Direct download: CHP-171-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_1R.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:14am EDT

Laszlo finishes up the story of the Yuan Dynasty, founded in 1271.  The parts of China not yet conquered were done in by 1276 and the last holdouts gone by 1279.  But the Great Yuan didn't last long.  This episode takes a nice little overview of the dynasty, its slow demise and the legacy they left.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty

Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan

Golden Horde  金帐汗国   Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.

Arigh Böke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai

Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan

Zhao   赵   The surname of the Song dynasty ruling family

Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire

Zhengding   正定 A place adjacent to Shijiazhuang, site of Kublai Khan's mother's appanage.

Shijiazhuang   石家庄 Capital of Hebei Province

Hebei   河北 Province in northern China

Zhongtong Era   中统 Era during the Yuan 1260-1264

Zhiyuan Era 至元 Era during the Yuan 1264-1294

Jin Dynasty  金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda

Haiyun Chan Shi 海运禅师 Buddhist advisor to Kublai Khan

Liu Bingzhong   刘秉忠 Advisor to Kublai Khan on all matters architectural, feng shui and other things

Khitans   契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125

Kaiping 开平 Original name of Shangdu

Shangdu   上都 Known popularly as Xanadu, later became Kublai's summer palace

Chengde   承德 Better known in old history books as Jehol or Rehe, city northwest of Beijing

Hülegü 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui

Dadu  大都 Kublai Khan capital, also known as Khanbaliq, City of the Khan's, located in present day Beijing

Zhu Yuanzhang   朱元璋 Ming Dynasty founder

Karakorum  喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260, originally built by Ogedai Khan

Shandong   山东 Coastal province in the north, famous for a million things including Confucius

Li Tan 李璮 Loyal Yuan official up in Shandong who later led a rebellion against Mongol rule in China.

Shi Tianze   石天泽 One of Kublai Khan's most loyal and successful Han Chinese generals

Duke of Zhou   周公 Son of the Zhou Dynasty founder King Wen, brother to King Wu

Taizong   太宗 Co-founder of the Tang Dynasty, also known as Li Shimin

Han Wudi   汉武帝 Great conquering Han Dynasty emperor

Liu Bei   刘备 Mighty hero during the Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period. Founder of the Shu Han State.

Lantau Island   大屿山 Hong Kong's largest island, the international airport is located there

Zhao Kuangyin   赵匡胤 Song dynasty founder

Lizong   理宗   Southern Song emperor 1224-1264 Not a terribly good one.

Emperor Yang of the Sui   隋炀帝 Son of Sui Dynasty founder and final emperor of the Sui. Did some good and some bad. Had a lot of concubines

Empress Dowager Xie

Duzong emperor 度宗 Southern Song emperor from 1264 to 1274

Jia Sidao   贾似道 Southern Song chancellor

Aju  阿术 General and high ranking official during the Yuan. Grandson of Subotei

Subotei  速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.

Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.

Bayan of the Baarin 伯颜   Kublai's greatest general

Han Jiang   汉江 Tributary of the Yangzi flows from Shaanxi to Hubei

Hanshui   汉水 Another name for the Han JIang

Hubei ren   湖北人 Someone from Hubei

Wuchang   武昌 The city that makes up the Wu in Wuhan

Hankou   汉口 The city that makes the Han in Wuhan

Hanyang   汉阳 The third city of the Wuhan metropolitan area

Nanjing   南京 Ming Dynasty capital, also known as the ancient city of Jiankang

Jiankang   建康 Ancient name for Nanjing

Qiantang River   钱塘江   the southern terminus of the Grand Canal, flowed through Hangzhou

Xiangyang   襄阳 City in Hubei opposite the Han Shui from Fancheng

Fancheng  樊城   City in Hubei opposite the Han Shui from Xiangyang

Xiangfan   襄樊 The twin cities of Xiangyang and Fancheng

Hui Hui Pao   回回炮 "Muslim trebuchet"

Cai Jing   蔡京 Huizong's main official, great calligrapher, not terribly popular in his last years

Emperor Gong  恭帝  Southern Song emperor from 1274 to 1276

Changzhou   常州   City in Jiangsu who felt the wrath of the Khan

Huizong 徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song

Duanzong 端宗   Second to the last Southern Song emperor, died age 8

Lu Xiufu   陆秀夫   Official and Military man who served the Song dynasty till the last

Zhao Bing   赵昺   Last emperor of the Southern Song, also known as Huaizong

Huaizong   怀宗   Last Song emperor, also known as Zhao Bing

Hubilie 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.

Yunnan   云南   Southwestern province in China

Empress Chabi 察必皇后   favorite wife of Kublai Khan

Zhenjin   真金   Son of Kublai Khan, died before he succeeded his father as emperor

Shizu   世祖   Posthumous temple name of Kublai Khan

Temür Khan 完泽笃汗 Son of Zhenjin, later became the Chengzong emperor

Chengzong emperor   成宗   Succeeded Kublai Khan as Yuan Emperor

Külüg Khan  曲律汗 Also known as the Wuzong emperor

Wuzong emperor  武宗   Yuan emperor 1307-1311

Buyantu Khan   普颜笃汗 Also known as the Renzong Emperor

Renzong emperor 仁宗 Yuan Emperor 1311-1320, champion of Confucianists.

Zhu Xi   朱熹 Great Chinese philosopher, father of Neo-Confucianism

Si Shu 四书 the Four Books

The Lunyu   论语 The Analects

Mengzi   孟子 The Mencius

Daxue   大学 The Great Learning

Zhongyong  中庸 The Doctrine of the Mean

I Ching   易经 The Book of Changes. People swear by it.

Yingzong emperor   英宗   Yuan Dynasty emperor 1320-1323

Temuder   铁木迭儿 Yuan grand councillar during Yingzong

Taiding Emperor 泰定帝 Yuan emperor 1323-1328

Liangdu zhi zhan   两都之战   War of the Two Capitals

Toghon Temür 妥懽帖睦尔Mongolian name of Yuan emperor Shun

Emperor Shun   顺帝 Yuan emperor

Shun  舜  Last of the mythical Five Emperors, lived around 2200 BC

Yu the Great   大禹 Founder of the Xia Dynasty

Poyang Hu zhizhan   鄱阳湖之战 the Battle of Poyang Lake

Hongwu Emperor   洪武帝 Era name chosen by Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming dynasty

Liu Bang   刘邦 A.K.A. Han Gaozu, founder of the Han Dynasty

Longquan   龙泉 Ancient site near Lishui where some of the best porcelain ware in China was fired.

Lishui   丽水 City in southern Zhejiang

Jingdezhen   景德镇   The historic porcelain capital of China.

Zheng He   郑和 The Yongle Emperor's loyal admiral who led seven voyages to the west that went as far as the east coast of Africa

Wu Cheng 吴澄   Great Yuan dynasty scholar-official and student of Zhu Xi's philosophy

Guo Shoujing 郭守敬   Great Yuan dynasty scholar, scientist, engineer. The "Tycho Brahe of China"

Zhao Mengfu   赵孟頫   Great Yuan era painter, descended from the Song royal family, married to Guan Daosheng.  

Guan Daosheng   管道昇   Called "China's greatest female painter". Married to Zhao Mengfu...an amazing couple in their day

Liu Guandao   刘贯道   Another great Yuan dynasty painter

  

Alec Ash's new book: Wish Lanterns: Young Lives in New China

 

Barbarians at the Gate Podcast: Get it H E R E at Jeremiah's Granite Studio page.

 

David Moser's "A Billion Voices: China's Search for a Common Language"

 

And check out Sixth Tone at http://www.sixthtone.com/

 

Direct download: CHP-170-The_Mongol_Yuan_Dynasty_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:20am EDT

CHP-169-The Mongol Yuan Dynasty Part 1

In this long overdue episode with a deceiving title we don't actually get around to the Yuan Dynasty.  However a nice handy and confusing overview tracing the rise of the Mongol nation is presented which includes a bio on Genghis Khan.  We'll get to rise of Kublai Khan this time and look at the Yuan Dynasty next episode.  

 

Terms from this Episode

numero ciento sesenta y nueve Number 169

Qin Shihuang 秦始皇 Qin Dynasty founder

Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty

Parthians 帕提亚  Iranian nomadic people

Scythians   斯基泰人 Iranian nomadic people

Yuezhi 月氏 Originally from Xinjiang and Gansu, defeated by the Xiongnu

Goths 哥特 West central Asian power, the scourge of the Roman Empire

Magyars   马扎儿人 West central Asian power. Today they are known as Hungarians.

Huns 匈奴 More from the western part of the steppe, often confused with Xiongnu

Xiongnu 匈奴 Often called Huns, they were an early northern tribe who kept invading China

Slavs   斯拉夫人 People from central Europe and the West Asian steppe

Xianbei 鲜卑   So-called "proto-Mongols" who lived around the Qin and Han dynasties and founded the Northern Wei.

Shatuo Turks  沙陀突厥  Power in north China late 9th and 10th century. Founded several short-lived dynasties in the north of China.

Khitans 契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125

Tatars 鞑靼人 Mongol tribe defeated by Genghis Khan who later moved westward towards Russia and Europe

Kazakhs   哈萨克人 North-Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

Kyrgyz  吉尔吉斯  Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kyrgyzstan

Uighurs   维吾尔人   Turkic people who today mostly live in Xinjiang

The Hakkas 客家人 The Hakka People

Fujian 福建   Province on the east coast of China

Huizong   徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song

Aguda 阿骨打 Also known as Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jin Dynasty

Wuqimai 吴乞买 Aguda's brother, second emperor of the Jin

Kaifeng 开封 Capital of the Northern Song Dynasty

Jin Dynasty  金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda

Zhao Gou   赵构 Escaped Zhao royal family member, launched Southern Song

Gaozong 高宗 First emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty

Lin'an 临安 Southern Song capital, present day Hangzhou

Merkits  蔑儿乞人 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Keraits  怯烈亦 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongüts  汪古部 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongirats  One of many tribes of the Mongols

Naimans 乃蛮 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Temüjin 铁木真 Genghis Khan's name

Dobun Known as Dobun the Clever, married to Alan the Fair, early ancestors of Temujin

Ah-Lan the Fair married to Dobun, early ancestors of Temujin

Khaidu 海都 c. 1040-1100 Great-grandfather of Khabul Khan

Khabul Khan  合不勒  Early great khan and great -grandfather of Genghis Khan

Yesugei the Brave 孛儿只斤Ÿ也速该 Father of Genghis Khan

Yuanchao Mi Shi 元朝秘史 The Secret History of the Mongols

Börte 孛儿帖 Wife of Temüjin and later Grand Empress of the Mongol Empire

Ulaan Bator 乌兰巴托 Capital of Mongolia

Jochi 术赤 Oldest son of Börte and maybe Genghis Khan

Golden Horde 金帐汗国  Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.

Xinjiang   新疆 Northwest autonomous region in China

Mongol Yasa (Jasagh)   A Mongol Codified law introduced by Genghis Khan

Khuriltai 忽里勒台   A Mongol congress of all elders and leaders

Kara Khitai 喀喇契丹 Also known as the Western Liao 1124-1218

Xixia  西夏 The Western Xia, an empire established by the Tanguts

Khwarizmian Empire 花剌子模王国 Lasted 1077-1231. Khwarazmia covered All of Iran and parts of Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan.

Batu 拔都 Founder of Golden Horde, son of Jochi, grandson of Genghis Khan

Chaghadai 蔡合台 Second son of Genghis Khan, founder of Khanate of Chaghadai

Khanate of Chaghadai 蔡合台汗国 Covered most of Central Asia

Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire

Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan

Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan

Kublai 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.

Hulagu 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui

Arigh Boke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai

Subotei 速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.

Dzungaria 准噶尔 Northern half of Xinjiang with Tianshan Mountains south and the Altai north.

Karakorum 喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260

Guyuk 贵由 Eldest son of Ogedai Khan, reigned only two years as the 3rd Great Khan

Mamluks 马木留克 Originally slave soldiers, they were a powerful "caste" of warriors who operated from the 9th to 19th centuries. Not to be messed with.

Il-khanate 伊儿汗国  The southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire. Ruled by Hülagü's branch of the family - centered around Iran

Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.

Owen Lattimore 欧文Ÿ拉铁摩尔 American scholar and Central Asian specialist

 

Isaac Meyer:  History of Japan Podcast

https://historyofjapan.wordpress.com/

 

Nina Xiang: "China Money Network"

http://www.chinamoneynetwork.com/

 

Direct download: CHP-169-The_Mongol_Yuan_Dynasty_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:10pm EDT

CHP-168-Zhou Enlai Part 8

In this bonus one hour plus episode we look at the last six years of Zhou Enlai's life. It was a bittersweet end for Premier Zhou.  In between doing great things for China and guiding the country's general well-being he was forced to play a central role in some of the worst internecine politics in CCP history.  

Terms from this episode

Sun Weishi   孙维世 Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao's adopted daughter

Jiang Qing   江青   Wife of Mao Zedong, Gang of Fouyr leader

Lin Biao   林彪   Revolutionary hero, great general, Mao chosen successor

Chen Yi   陈毅   Another great military leader, later foreign minister

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   State Chairman (title changed to president in 1982), main target of Cultural Revolution

Chen Boda   陈伯达 Former secretary, speechwriter to Mao

Zhang Chunqiao   张春桥 Political theoretician, later member of the Gang of Four

Yao Wenyuan   姚文元 Prominent writer, critic...wrote the initial critique of Wu Han's play that kicked off the Cultural Revolution

Lushan   庐山 Scenic spot in northern Jiangxi, site of many historic meetings

Poyang Lake   鄱阳湖   China's largest freshwater lake

Jiangxi Province   江西 Province in eastern China

Xian Incident   西安事变   October 12, 1936 kidnapping of Chiang Kai-shek

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀   Great military leader, destroyed by Mao at Lushan in 1959 due to criticism of the Great Leap Forward

Zhuang Zedong   庄则栋   One of China's greatest table tennis champions

Wu Faxian   吴法宪   Former Air Force commander, staunch Lin Biao supporter

Ye Qun   叶群 Wife of Lin Biao

Lin Liguo   林立果   Son of Lin Biao, main planner of the attempted coup of Lin Biao

Beidaihe   北戴河   Beach resort near Qinhuangdao, Hebei province, popularly used as a Party retreat for informal meetings

Shanhaiguan   山海关 Historic district near to Beidaihe and Qinhuangdao

"Tian yao xia yu, niang yao jia ren, wufa keshe, you ta qu ba!"   天要下雨,娘要嫁人,无法可设,由他去吧   the heavens must rain and a woman wants to be wed....nothing can be done about this....let him go."

Zunyi Conference   遵义会议 Historic CCP conference in January 1935 in which Mao and Bo Gu fought for supremacy

Zhongnanhai   中南海   Government leadership compound adjacent to the Forbidden City

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超 Wife of Zhou Enlai, later chairperson of the CPPCC

Wumao's   五毛党   People in the Party's employ responsible for flooding the internet with pro-Party comments in an effort to sway public opinion.

Wang Hairong   王海容 Mao's grand niece and later vice minister of the Foreign Ministry

Nancy Tang Wensheng   唐文生 Mao's English interpreter

Wang Hongwen   王洪文 Young, unknown Shanghai radical hand picked by Mao to be his successor

Xinjian County Tractor Factory   新建县拖拉机厂 Factory outside Nanchang where Deng Xiaoping was sent to work after his first political purge ion 1969

Nanchang   南昌 Capital of Jiangxi province

Pi Lin Pi Kong   批林批孔运动 The Criticize Lin Biao, Criticize Confucius Campaign

Ye Jianying   叶剑英 Great PLA general, great leader, rose to the occasion at several key moments in China history

Luo Ruiqing   罗瑞卿   Popular general, early victim of the Cultural Revolution

Mao Yuanxin   毛远新   Mao's nephew, son of his younger brother Mao Zemin

Sige Xiandaihua   四个现代化   The Four Modernizations

Hua Guofeng   华国锋 named as acting Premier to replace Zhou, later Party Chairman

Zhu De   朱德 PLA founder, great general and comrade of Mao

Tangshan   唐山   City in Hebei, just east of Beijing, epicenter of the great earthquake of 1976

Li Xiannian   李先念   Great military and political leader, later President of Chian 1983-88

Wang Dongxing   汪东兴 Mao's bodyguard during the Cultural Revolution years. Commander of the 8341 Special Regiment

Gaige kaifang   改革开放 The policy of reform and opening up to the outside world.

Direct download: CHP-168-Zhou_Enlai_Part_8.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:36pm EDT

CHP-167-Zhou Enlai Part 7

In this longer than expected seventh episode of the series the Cultural Revolution gets underway, something that Zhou will have to deal with until his dying day.  Aside from this, China's illustrious premier also has his hands full with a thousand other responsibilities, both foreign and domestic. 

 

Terms from this Episode:

Zhou Enlai   周恩来   China's beloved premier and statesman

Huai'an 淮安 City in Jiangsu Province, birthplace of Zhou Enlai

Jiangsu   江苏   Rich coastal province in China

Nankai Middle School 天津南开中学   Famed school where Zhou attended

Tianjin   天津   Municipality just east of Beijing

Whampoa Military Academy   中华民国陆军军官学校   Military academy located in Guangzhou

Jinggangshan   井冈山 Soviet base set up by Mao in the mountains of Jiangxi

Zhu De   朱德   PLA founder and legendary general

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   Great Chinese leader, persecuted by Mao during Cultural Revolution

Deng Xiaoping   邓小平 China's supreme leader in the 1980's

Yang Shangkun   杨尚昆   Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Peng Zhen   彭真 Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀   Great military hero of the PRC, former defense minister

Guiyang   贵阳   Capital of Guizhou Province

Guizhou   贵州   Interior province of China

Hebei   河北 Province in northern China

geming lao qu   革命老区 Revolutionary areas loyal to the CCP going back to the 2nd Sino-Japanese War

Boyan   伯延 A town near Wu'an (武安) in southern Hebei

Zhou Enlai de Sige Zhouye   周恩来的四个昼夜 Movie called "The Story of Zhou Enlai"

Wang Tiecheng   王铁成   Chinese actor famous for his portrayals of Zhou Enlai

Liu Bocheng   刘伯承   Great PLA general who worked closely with Deng Xiaoping

cunmin   村民   village people

Gu Mu   谷牧 1914-2009, great revolutionary, politician, vice-premier

Lin Biao   林彪 Great military hero of the PRC, former defense minister, later rabble rouser

Xinjiang 新疆   Autonomous region in China's northwest

lao gege   老哥哥   Old buddy

Deng Jiaxian 邓稼先   The father of China's nuclear program. Great nuclear physicist

Li Siguang   李四光 Great Chinese scientist, father of China's geomechanics program

Qian Sanqiang   钱三强 Great nuclear physicist

Zhongnanhai   中南海   China's top leadership compound adjacent to the Forbidden City

Luóbùpō  罗布破 Lop Nor in Xinjiang province

He Long   贺龙 Great PLA general

Ngo Dinh Diem 吴廷琰 President of South Vietnam 1955-1963

Yunnan   云南   Province in southwest China

Chen Yi   陈毅   Great Chinese leader, general, statesman, football fanatic

Sanxian jianshe   三线建设 The Third Front Movement

Qinghai   青海   Province in western China

Ningxia   宁夏   Autonomous region in the north of China

Sichuan   四川   Province in China also known as Szechwan

Gansu   甘肃    Province in western China

Chen Yun   陈云 Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Bo Yibo   薄一波   Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Li Fuchun   李富春 Leader and statesman in China, handled the planning of China's economy.

chi chuan yong   吃穿用 "Eat, Wear, Use"

biyaopin   必要品 Necessities of Life

riyongpin   日用品   Daily use items

Dongfang Hong   东方红   The East is Red

Jiang Qing   江青   Mao's last wife, among many other things, all negative.

Wu Han   吴晗   Ming dynasty expert, Beijing vice-mayor

Yao Wenyuan   姚文元   One of the Gang of Four

Wenhui Bao   文汇报   The Wenhui Bao, a Shanghai newspaper

Wuhan   武汉   City in Hubei on the Yangzi consisting of the cities of Hankou, Wuchang and Hanyang

Hangzhou   杭州   Capital of Zhejiang province

Zhong Fa   中发   A Central Directive, like an executive order

Luo Ruiqing  罗瑞卿   PLA great and later target of the Cultural Revolution

Ye Qun   叶群   PLA colonel and wife of Lin Biao

Xiao Xiangrong   肖向荣 Whampoa Military Academy grad, old revolutionary, Luo Ruiqing ally.

Yangzi   扬子江   The Yangtse River

Pao da siling bu   炮打司令部   Bombard the headquarters (Mao's first Big character poster)

Tan Zhenlin   谭震林 Another PLA great

Xu Xiangqian   徐向前 Another PLA great

Wang Guangmei   王光美   Wife of Liu Shaoqi

Song Qingling   宋庆龄   Wife of Sun Yat-sen, later a stateswoman of the PRC

Sun Weishi   孙维世 Adopted daughter of Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao

Sun Bingwen   孙炳文   Early CCP martyr, father of Sun Weishi

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超   Wife of Zhou Enlai, among many other things

You Tube link to The Zhou Enlai Story movie

Direct download: CHP-167-Zhou_Enlai_Part_7.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 9:47am EDT

CHP-166-Zhou Enlai Part 6

More Zhou Enlai again. This time we look at the second half of the 1950's. Zhou was as busy as ever, setting up the government, handling foreign relations and dealing with Chairman Mao. This episode will see Zhou during the Gao Gang Affair, Hundred Flowers, Anti-Rightist, San Fan and Wu Fan Campaigns, Land Reform, rapid agricultural collectivization and the disastrous Great Leap Forward.

Terms from this episode

Gao Gang 高岗 Senior CCP leader who fell victim of the first high-level purge in PRC history

Shaanxi 陕西   Ancient province where Xian is the capital. Next door to Shanxi

Yan'an   延安   Revolutionary CCP base from 1935-1947

Wang Ming   王明 29 Bolsheviks leader who challenged Mao and lost

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀 Legendary PLA leader and old comrade of Mao

Chen Yun   陈云   Old revolutionary chiefly in charge of China's economy

Li Fuchun   李富春   Old comrade of Zhou's from Paris, great revolutionary, Vice premier

Lushunkou   旅顺口 Port Arthur in Liaoning Province

Liaoning   辽宁 One of the three provinces of Manchuria

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   Party legend and sometimes rival of Chairman Mao

Hangzhou   杭州 City in Zhejiang, former capital of the Southern Song

Zhang Zuolin   张作霖   Warlord of Manchuria in the 1920's

Rao Shushi   饶漱石 Gao Gang accomplice in the Gao Gang Affair

Gao Rao Fan Dang Lianmeng 高饶反党联盟 The Gao-Rao Anti-Party Alliance

San Fan Campaign   三反运动 The 3 Anti's Campaign

Wu Fan Campaign   五反运动 The 5 Anti's Campaign

Tanwu he langfei shi jidade fanzui 贪污和浪费是极大的犯罪     Corruption and Waste were the biggest crimes

zhishifenzi   知识分子   Intellectuals

zibenzhuyizhe   资本主义者   Capitalists

Zhongguo Minhang   中国民航   CAAC The old China national airline before it was broken up

Chen Yi   陈毅   PLA legend, soccer fanatic, close comrade of Mao's and later Shanghai mayor and China foreign minister (after Zhou stepped down)

jus sanguinis This is a Latin word meaning "right of blood"

Zhongnanhai   中南海   Compound adjascent to the Forbidden City where China's leaders reside.

Bo Yibo   薄一波   Old revolutionary from Shanxi in charge of finance and the economy with Chen Yun

Li Xiannian   李先念 CCP legend who played a major role in the 80's with Deng Xiaoping

zili gengsheng   自力更生   Self-reliance

Ren duo hao ban shi   人多好办事   When you have a lot of people, things are easy to do

Nanning   南宁   Capital city in Guangxi province

Chengdu    成都 Capital city in Sichuan

Lushan    庐山   Sacred mountain and site of a famous resort in Jiangxi province

 

Direct download: CHP-166-Zhou_Enlai_Part_6.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 12:10pm EDT

CHP-165-Zhou Enlai Part 5

Laszlo returns after one of the longest breaks ever in the history of the CHP.  Part 5 this time.  The PRC is founded and Premier/ForeignMinister Zhou Enlai has his work cut out for him.  In this episode the focus is on the Korean War and the Geneva Conference. Zhou already enjoyed some degree of international respect from those he had come to know during his Shanghai and Chongqing years.  By 1954 he had established himself as a respected tour de force on the world stage and earned begrudging admiration from those who refused to recognize the country for which he was head of state.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超   Wife of Zhou Enlai and CPPCC Chairwoman 1983-1988

Zhongnanhai   中南海 Compound adjacent to the Forbidden City that houses the top Party leadership

Juxiang Shuwu 菊香书屋 Zhou's first dwelling in Zhongnanhai and later taken over by Mao as his primary office and residence.

Yingtai 瀛台   Island located in the center of South Lake...later the residence of Deng Xiaoping

Empress Dowager Cixi 慈禧太后 Top decision maker in China from 1861 to 1908

Guangxu Emperor   光绪帝 Qing emperor who began the Hundred Days of Reform and got locked up by the Empress Dowager for his troubles.

Xihuating   西花厅   Zhou's residence after Mao took over the Juxiang Shuwu.

Prince Chun 醇亲王 Qing dynasty statesman and father to the Guangxu Emperor and grandfather to Puyi...

Puyi   溥仪 The Xuantong Emperor, a.k.a. The Last Emperor

Chongqing   重庆 Wartime capital of China during WWII

Zhou Enshou   周恩寿 Younger brother of Zhou Enlai

didi   弟弟 younger brother

butie   补贴 a subsidy

Sun Weishi   孙维世 Adopted daughter of Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao

Li Peng   李鹏 Adopted sin of Zhou and Deng Yingchao and Premier of China1987-1998

Huai'an 淮安 Birthplace of Zhou Enlai

Jiangsu   江苏 Province where Huai-an was located.

Guowuyuan   国务院 The State Council

Zhengwuyuan   政务院 Former name of the State Council

Chen Yi   陈毅   Immortal military leader, foreign minister and hardcore soccer fan

Wenhui Bao   文汇报 The Wenhui Daily, a Shanghai newspaper

Pu Shouchang   浦寿昌   Served as Zhou Enlai's secretary from 1954-1965

Zongli Yamen   总理衙门 The old Qing dynasty foreign ministry

Wang Jiaxiang   王稼祥 Vice foreign minister

Li Kenong   李克农   Vice foreign minister

Zhang Hanfu   章汉夫   Vice foreign minister

Wang Bingnan   王炳南 Key foreign ministry leader

Qiao Guanhua   乔冠华   Key foreign ministry leader

Chen Jiakang   陈嘉康   Key foreign ministry leader

Ke Bainian   柯柏年   Key foreign ministry leader

Gong Peng   龚澎   Key foreign ministry leader

Huang Hua   黄华   Key foreign ministry leader

Lüshun   旅顺口 Located in the tip of the Liaodong peninsula, formerly known as Port Arthur

Dalian   大连 Port city in Liaoning province

xijie   细节 details

Lin Biao   林彪 Marshal and military hero until he tried to overthrow Mao in 1971

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀 Great military leader and later victim of the Great Leap Forward

Yalu River   鸭绿江 The river dividing North Korea and China.

Zhongguo Renmin Zhìyuànjūn 中国人民志愿军 The China People's Volunteer Army

Léi Yīngfū the Luòyáng Cáizǐ  雷应付, 洛阳才子 Assisted Kimn Il Sung during the Korean War. Mao called him later the Literary Genius from Luoyang

Lǐ Chéngwǎn李承晚 1st president of South Korea Syngman Rhee

Guoqing   国庆 National Day

Zhongguo laobaixing   中国老百姓 The Chinese People

Kàng Mei Yúan Cháo Zhànzhēng   抗美援朝战争 The resist America and defend Korea War (What China calls The Korean War).

Kàng Mei Yúan Cháo   抗美援朝 resist America and defend Korea.

Zhong Mei Guanxi   中美关系  China-US Relations

Yang Kaihui   杨开慧 Mao's 1st wife (if you don't include the arranged marriage he never recognized)

Mao Anying   毛岸英 Son of Mao Zedong and Yang Kaihui

shi   市 a City

zhen   镇 a Town

cun   村 a Village

Vo Nguyên Giáp   武元甲 Great military hero of Vietnam

Wéi Guóqīng   韦国清

Dien Bien Phu   奠边府 City in Vietnam where the French were defeated in 1954

Pham Van Dong   范文同   Former prime minister of Vietnam

Liuzhou, Guangxi   广西柳州 Major city in Guangxi province

Huan Xiang   宦乡   Journalist and diplomat

Bandung   万隆 City in Indonesia, site of a famous conference

Gao Gang   高岗  Heavyweight in northeast China and later victim of the first purge after the PRC was established.

San Fan   三反运动 The Three Anti Campaign launched end 1951

Wu Fan   五反运动 The Five Anti Campaign launched in early 1952

Direct download: CHP-165-Zhou_Enlai_Part_5.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 10:23am EDT

CHP-164-Zhou Enlai Part 4

In this Part 4 episode of the CHP Zhou Enlai series Laszlo re-tells the always amusing story of when the Americans came around Yan'an to kick the tires of the CCP and see what they were all about. Many of these events from today's episode were covered in previous podcasts (Kang Sheng, Deng Xiaoping, John Service and Civil War). This time Zhou again proves his loyalty and devotion to Mao and as always to China. He gets a real workout as far as developing his role as the Communists (and later China's) chief diplomat.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Yan'an   延安   Revolutionary base of the CCP after the Long March

Kang Sheng   康生   康生 Early CCP secret police chief and later "godfather" of the Cultural Revolution

Shaanxi   陕西 Province in northwest China

Zunyi   遵义 2nd largest city in Guizhou

Zhang Guotao   张国焘 Senior Communist leader and rival to Mao

Bo Gu   博古 One of the 28 Bolsheviks and right hand to Wang Ming

Wang Ming   王明   Comintern appointed CCP leader and head of the 28 Bolsheviks

Zhu De   朱德 Founder of the Red Army

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   Early Mao supporter and later top leader in China

Bo Yibo 薄一波 Early Mao supporter, featured in an earlier CHP episode

Peng Zhen   彭真 Early Mao supporter and later mayor of Beijing

Chen Yi   陈毅   Great general, Shanghai mayor, Foreign Minister

zhishi fenzi   知识分子 intellectuals

He Zizhen   贺子珍 Mao's third wife (after Luo Yixiu and Yang Kaihui)

Lan Ping   蓝萍 Stage name of Jiang Qing

Li Shumeng   李淑蒙 Early name of Jiang Qing

Li Yunhe 李云鹤 Another early name of Jiang Qing

Jiang Qing   江青 Madame Mao, the name by which she is best known.

Wang Jiaxiang  王稼祥 Another former 28 Bolshevik and Party leader who sided with Mao

Ye Jianying   叶剑英   Immortal Communist military leader and statesman

Huang Hua   黄华 Great Chinese diplomat and vice premier

Chen Jiakang   陈家康 Early communist and very close to Zhou Enlai, serving as his chief liaison with foreign journalists.

Ma Haide   马海德   Dr. George Hatem, subject of a future episode.

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Lin Biao   林彪   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Nie Rongzhen   聂荣臻   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

He Long   贺龙   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Liu Bei  刘备 Great Sichuan hero and King of Shu. One of the main characters of Romance of the Three Kingdoms

Zhuge Liang   诸葛亮 Another main character from Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Wise advisor to Liu Bei

Shaoshan   韶山 Birthplace of Mao near Xiangtan

Jinggangshan   井冈山   The cradle of the revolution, where Mao went after the Autumn Harvest Uprising

Ruijin   瑞金   City on Fujian-Jiangxi border

Zhangjiakou   张家口 City of 4.4 million that borders Beijing, Inner Mongolia and Shanxi

Lingdao   领导 leader

Zaolin'gou   枣林沟 Site of a key meeting after Yan'an was evacuated

Panlongzhen  蟠龙镇 Place in Shaanxi where Peng Dehuai raided a KMT supply depot

Ren Bishi   任弼时 Early political and military communist leader. Died in 1950.

Shanxi   山西 Northern province bordering Shaanxi

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超 Wife and lifelong partner of Zhou Enlai

Liao-Shen Campaign   辽沈战役 The first of the three great military campaigns 9-12-1948 to 11-2-1948  

Xibaipo 西柏坡 Town near Shijiazhuang that served as Mao's new base after Yan'an.

Shijiazhuang 石家庄 Capital Hebei Province

Hebei   河北 Province in China where Beijing is geographically located (but not part of)

Huai-Hai Campaign 淮海战役 The second of the three great military campaigns 11-6-1948 to 1-10-1949

Ping-Jin Campaign 平津战役 The last of the three great military campaigns 11-29-1948 to 1-31-1949

Li Zongren   李宗仁 Succeeded Chiang as president in January 1949

Xikou   溪口 Birthplace of Chiang Kai-shek

Ningbo   宁波 Major port city in Zhejiang province

tuocha   沱茶 usually 100 gram dome shaped tea bricks

Sheng Pu-erh   生普洱 Raw Pu-erh Tea

Menghai Tea Factory   勐海茶厂 Famous tea factory in Xishuangbanna

Xishuangbanna   西双版纳 One of the great tea cities of China

Shou Pu-erh  熟普洱 Ripe Pu-erh tea

Xiaguan Tea Factory   下关茶厂 Famous tea factory in Dali

Dali 大理  formerly known as Xiaguan, city in Yunnan

Yunnan 云南 Southwest province of China

gaiwan   盖碗 covered tea bowls

shiba da   十八大 The 18th Party Congress

Gum jie   金姐 Long serving tea lady at the CHP Complex

 

The CHP Pu-Erh Tea / Gaiwan Gift Set

http://www.teasenz.com/pu-erh-tuocha-tea-gaiwan-gift-set

 

Elias Belhaddad's History of Islam Podcast

http://historyofislampodcast.blogspot.co.uk

 

 THE ONE, THE ONLY, THE ANTHILL

theanthill.org

"While We're Here"

earnshawbooks.com

 

Direct download: CHP-164-Zhou_Enlai_Part_4.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:38pm EDT