Thu, 20 March 2014
We're going to begin a new series that will look at political, social and cultural life in the late Northern Song. The second the the last emperor Huizong will serve as our vehicle to examine this period in late 11th and early 12th century China. University of Washington professor Dr. Patricia Buckley Ebrey has recently published a book entitled Emperor Huizong. I'm going to use this as one of the main sources. The Song Dynasty was another one of those times when China was the most advanced and economically powerful civilizations on earth. The period which Huizong reigned was one of the high points of the dynasty. But in 1127 the emperor's world will come crashing down with invasions from the north. Today we begin our look at this emperor.
TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE
Huizong 徽宗 Song Dynasty emperor who reigned 1100-1127
Ouyang Xiu 欧阳修 Featured in CHP-071, China's answer to Leonardo da Vinci. Once a reformer, later conservative.
Zhao Kuangyin赵匡胤 Song dynasty founder, also known by his temple name Taizu 太祖。
Han 汉 Han Dynasty
Jin 晋 Jin Dynasty
Sui 隋 Sui Dynasty
Tang 唐 Tang Dynasty
Kaifeng 开封 in Henan, Capital of the Northern Song
Lin'an 临安 Near Hangzhou
Yuan 元朝 The Mongol Yuan Dynasty
Taizu 太祖 Temple name of Zhao Kuangyin, Song founder
Taizong 太宗 2nd Song emperor
Zhenzong 真宗 3rd Song emperor
Renzong 仁宗 4th Song emperor
Yingzong 英宗 5th Song emperor
Shenzong 神宗 6th Song emperor, father of Huizong
Zhezong 哲宗 7th Song emperor, older brother of Huizong
Wujing Zongyao 武警总要 Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques, written 1044, explained gunpowder for the 1st time
Wang Anshi 王安石 Reformer during Shenzong emperor
Fan Zhongyan 范仲淹 Early Reformer of the Song
Su Dongpo 苏东坡 Also known as 苏轼, great politician and local Hangzhou hometown hero.
Empress Dowager Gao 高太后 Empress to the Yingzong emperor
Sima Guang 司马光 Song historian and politician known for his conservative bent
Empress Dowager Xiang 向太后 Empress of Emperor Shenzong
Consort Chen 陈皇后 Consort of Shenzong, birth mother of Huizong
Zhao Xu 赵頊 The Shenzong emperor given name (1st tone Xu)
Zhao Xu 赵煦 The Zhezong emperor given name (4th tone Xu)
Zhao Ji 赵佶 Huizong's given name
Chang'an 长安 Near modern day Xian, ancient capital of the Tang
Bian River 卞河 River in Kaifeng
Qianlong 乾隆 Qing dynasty emperor who took several tours of China
Li Jie 李誡 China's greatest architect of ancient time, author of the 营造法式 Yingzao Fashi
Sunzi 孙子 Wrote the Art of War
Yingzao Fashi 营造法式 The Song work: Treatise on Architectural Methods. Also known as the State Building Standards.
Prince of Duan 端王 Title of Huizong prior to becoming emperor
Wang Shen 王诜 Considered one of China's greatest landscape painters. Had early influence on young Huizong's love of art and lit.
Consort Liu 刘皇后 Consort of Zhezong
Prince of Shen 申王 9th son of Shenzong, also known as Bi, the one with weak eyes.
Bi 赵佖 Older brother of Huizong, the one who had bad eyes
Cai Jing 蔡京 Northern Song official, later to play a major role in Huizong's reign. One of the greatest calligraphers of his day. Brother of Cai Bian.
Cai Bian 蔡卞 Younger brother of Cai Jing. Also a chancellor and famed calligrapher.
Wu 赵俣 Zhao Wu, younger brother to Huizong
Si 赵似 Zhao Si, younger brother to Huizong
Ssi 赵偲 Zhao Ssi, younger brother to Huizong (spelled with 2 "s" to differentiate from Zhao Si)
Cixi 慈禧 Cixi Taihou, a.k.a. Empress Dowager Tzu-Hsi
Zeng Bu 曾布 Junior Chief Councillor and trusted advisor to Huizong as soon as he became emperor.
Zhang Dun 章惇 Chancellor before Cai Jing
Liang Congzheng 梁从政 The chief eunuch when Huizong ascended the throne.
Gong County 巩县 Former name of Gongyi, where the Song tombs are
Gongyi 巩义 City where the ancient Song tombs are located
Han Zhongyan 韩忠彦 Senior chancellor during Huizong's reign
Liu Hunkang 劉混康 Great Daoist master. b. 1035, d. 1108
Gaige Kaifang 改革开放 Reform and opening up to the world, a policy instituted by Deng Xiaoping in the 80's.
Sun, 2 March 2014
We're going to finish off the last 45 years of Morris Two-Gun Cohen's life in this extra-long episode. With Sun Yat-sen now gone, Morris Cohen worked hard to reinvent himself and remain relevant in the world of the Chinese business and politics. Morris will hit some highs and lows in this episode as he tried to leverage his past association with Sun and his obvious loyalty to the KMT into an ongoing and lucrative career. As you'll see in this episode, the road was hardly a smooth one.
TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE
Song Ailing 宋蔼龄 Eldest Song sister, married to H.H. Kung
Song Qingling 宋庆龄 Madame Sun Yat-sen, lifelong benefactor to Morris Cohen
H.H. Kung 孔祥熙 Husband of Song Ailing. Lifetime KMT stalwart. Economic and Finance guru for the party in the 30's and 40's.
Sheng-Gang Dabagong 省港大罢工 The Guangzhou Hong Kong Strike
T.V. Soong 宋子文 Brother of Soong Sisters. One of the biggest heavyweights of the late Republican era
Eugene Chen Youren 陈友仁 Eugene Chen Known as Sun Yat-sen's foreign minister
Song Meiling 宋美龄 Madame Chiang Kai-shek
Sun Fo 孙佛 Son of Sun Yat-sen, also known as Sun Ke 孙科
Hu Hanmin 胡汉民 Close ally of Sun Yat-sen, first supporter, then lifetime political foe of Chiang Kai-shek.
C.C. Wu 伍朝樞 Chiang Kai-shek's foreign minister and later a minister to the US. Son of Wu Tingfang.
Wu Tingfang 伍廷芳 Official during last years of Qing. Later a top diplomat in the Nationalist government.
Wellington Koo 顾维钧 Longtime diplomat and KMT stalwart
Li Jishen 李济深 Military strongman based in Guangzhou. Had a falling out with Chiang Kai-shek and stayed in China after 1949
Chen Jitang 陈济棠 Governed Guangdong province from 1929-1936. Another of Morris's paymasters.
Nan Tianwang 南天王 Celestial King of the South, Chen Jitang's nickname down in Guangdong.
Wu Tiecheng 武铁成 Another KMT heavy. Served as mayor of Shanghai and later high up in the post 1949 KMT. Another paymaster to Morris.
Xianbing Dui 宪兵队 The dreaded Japanese Kempeitai
Shuangqiang Ma Kun 双枪马坤 Two-Gun Morris Cohen