Sat, 28 February 2015
In this milestone 150th CHP episode Laszlo shines a light on the Hakka people and where they fit in Chinese history. There are no shortages of authoritative sources that all disagree as to their origins ands when the Hakka’s migrated from where to where. Legends and stereotypes surrounded this sub-group of Chinese. But one thing is for sure they have carved an indelible spot in worldwide Chinese culture. More than 80 million Hakka’s call this solar system their home. Fifty minutes hardly offers a comprehensive look at any culture, let alone 客家文化. In this episode Laszlo offers a general overview. As always there is plenty of reading you can do and videos you can watch that give you a more satisfying meal than this episode can.
Terms from this Episode
Hakka people 客家人 Translates to “Guest People”
Gan 赣 Abbreviation for Jiangxi Province
Gan River 赣江 Main river in Jiangxi
Ganzhou 赣州 City in Jiangxi
Sima Yan 司马炎 Founded Jin Dynasty. Temple name Jin Wudi
Cao Wei 曹魏 Northern of the Three Kingdoms
Shu 蜀汉 The western of the Three Kingdoms
Wu 东吴 The eastern of the Three Kingdoms
Jin Dynasty 晋朝 Founded by Jin Wudi
The Han 汉朝 The Han Dynasty
Jin Wudi 晋武帝 Jin Dynasty founder
Luoyang 洛阳 Ancient capital city in China history
Emperor Min 晋愍帝 Last Western Jin emperor
Huizong 徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song
Wuhu 五胡 The Five Barbarian Tribes
Xiōngnú 匈奴 One of the Five Barbarian Tribes
Jié 羯One of the Five Barbarian Tribes
Xianbei 鲜卑 One of the Five Barbarian Tribes
Dī 氐 One of the Five Barbarian Tribes
Qiāng 羌 One of the Five Barbarian Tribes
Zhao 赵 Surname of the Song Dynasty emperors
Jiankang 建康 Ancient name of Nanjing
Nanjing 南京 City in Jiangsu, means Southern capital
Liu Yu 刘裕 Founder of the Liu Song (also known as 刘宋武帝)
Liu Song 刘宋 First of the Southern Kingdoms
Nanbei Chao 南北朝 The Southern and Northern Kingdoms period
Shibi Village 石壁村 Place in Fujian where the Hakka’s first settled
Yan’an 延安 City in Shaanxi, where the Long March concluded
Zudi 祖地 Ancestral land
Ninghua County 宁化县 County in Fujian
Tingzhou 汀洲 Another place not far from Shibi where the Hakka’s first assembled
Changting 长汀 Present day name for Tingzhou
Luo Xianglin 罗祥林 Hakka historian
Kejia Yanjiu Daoliu 客家研究导流 Luo Xianglin’s 1933 book “An Introduction to the Study of the Hakka’s,”
Huang Chao Uprising 黄巢之乱 Uprising in the late Tang from 881 to 884
Zhao Kuangyin 赵匡胤 Founder of the Song Dynasty
Kaifeng 开封 Capital of the Northern Song
Lin’an 临安 Capital of Southern Song (present day Hangzhou)
Zheng Chenggong 郑成功 Taiwan hero, better known as Koxinga
Kangxi emperor 康熙 Long reigning early Qing Dynasty emperor
Qian Hai Ling 遷海令The Great Clearance, or coastal evacuation
Bendi 本地 Also known as the Punt in Cantonese, means Native
Chaozhou 潮州City in Guangdong, above Shantou. The people are known as Teochew
Shantou 汕头 Coastal city in Guangdong adjacent to Chaozhou
Chaoshan 潮汕 Abbreviation for Chaozhou-Shantou
Jieyang 揭阳 Predominantly Hakka city just west of Chaozhou and Shantou.
Yue 粤 Abbreviation for Guangdong
Kejia ren 客家人 A Hakka Person
Meizhou 梅州 City in northeast Guangdong
Biaozhun 标准 a standard
Meixian 梅县 Mei County
Yanju Ji 盐焗鸡 Salt Baked Chicken
Niang Doufu 酿豆腐 The most famous Hakka dish
Tu Kè Xièdòu 土客械斗 The Punti-Hakka Clan Wars from1855 and 1867
Taishan 台山 City known as Toi San.
Qingchao Monian 清朝末年 The final years of the Qing dynasty
Min 闽 Fujian people, also an abbreviation of Fujian
Hong Xiuquan 洪秀全 Responsible for the Taiping Rebellion
Xiang 湘 Abbreviation of Hunan
Han Su-yin 韩素音 Born in Xinyang, Henan, home of Xinyang Maojian tea. Han Su Yin was the pen name of author Elizabeth Comber
Hsieh T’ing-yu Historian who wrote The Origin and Migrations of the Hakkas (1929)
Nàxī 纳西 Ethnic minority group around Lijiang in Yunnan
Tulou 土楼 The circular and square Hakka compounds
Hui 回 The character “to return”.
Yongding County 永定县 County in southern Fujian near Guangdong border
Weilong Wu 围龙屋 Distinctive single level concentric U-shaped structures
Kejia shange 客家山歌 Hakka mountain folk songs
Leicha 擂茶 Hakka pounded tea
Deng Xiaoping 邓小平
Yang Shangkun 杨尚昆
Lee Kwan Yew 李光耀
Zhu De 朱德
Ye Jianying 叶剑英
Su Yu 粟裕
Chen Yi 陈毅
Hua Guofeng 华国锋
Hu Yaobang 胡耀邦
Guo Moruo 郭沫若
Liu Bocheng 刘伯承(maybe)
Nie Rongzhen 聂荣臻 (maybe)
Zhang Guotao 张国焘
Ouyang Xiu 欧阳修
Aw Boon Haw 胡文虎
Aw Boon Par 胡文豹
Chow Yun-fat 周润发
Lee Denghui 李登辉
Charlie Soong 宋嘉树
Song Ailing 宋爱玲
Song Meiling 宋美龄
T.V. Soong 宋子文
Henan Xinyang Maojian tea 河南信阳毛尖茶
Jemimah Steinfeld: Little Emperors and Material Girls: Youth and Sex in Modern China
University of Pittsburgh Professor and Director of their Asian Studies Center Nicole Constable: Guest People: Hakka Identity in China and Abroad
Thu, 5 February 2015
In this final episode of the CHP's ten-part History of Tea series Laszlo travels from province to province introducing the more famous of China's teas.
The History of Tea Part 10 Terms
Pu’er普洱 City in Yunnan famous for Pu’er Tea
Qingming Festival 清明节 Grave Sweeping Festival, usually around April 5-6
Shu Pu’er 熟普洱Ripe Pu’er Tea
Wodui 渥堆 The process to speed up the ripening of Pu’er tea
Longjing tea 龙井茶 The famous green tea from the West Lake area in Hangzhou
Qianlong 乾隆帝 Qing dynasty emperor. No need to get into an detail.
Hugong Temple 胡公庙Temple in Longjing Village
Shanzhai 山寨 Slang for cheap imitation consumer goods
Maojian 毛尖 “Downy tip” or “Fur tip” tea leaves consisting of a bud and single leaf.
Maofeng 毛峰 The classic bud set consisting of a bud and the two top leaves.
Zhucha 珠茶 “Pearl” Tea or Gunpowder Tea.
Pingshui 平水 Pingshui, just south of Shaoxing 紹興
Huangshan Maofeng 黄山毛峰 The most famous “maofeng” tea from the Huangshan area in Anhui
Huangshan 黄山 One of China’s sacred mountains, located in Anhui
Lu’an 六安 City in Anhui
Lu’an Guapian 六安瓜片 The specialty of Lu’an, Melon Seed Tea
Shanghai Tianshan Chacheng 上海天山茶城 A tea shopping center located in Shanghai
Chacheng 茶城 A tea city, the name given to these “tea malls”
Yan cha 岩茶 Rock Tea from the cliffs of Wuyi Shan
Xinyang Maojian 信阳毛尖 The specialty of Henan province, the most northerly grown tea in China.
Jiān 尖 Tip
Tsim Sha Tsui 尖沙咀 The district at the southern tip of Kowloon in Hong Kong
Xishuangbanna 西双版纳 City in southern Yunnan, ground zero for wild tea trees
Ankang 安康 Prefectural-level city located at the southeast corner of Shaanxi province. Known as the city of folk songs.
Ziyang Maojian 紫阳毛尖茶 Selenium rich tea from Ziyang County in Shaanxi
Xī 硒 Selenium
Taiping Houkui 太平猴魁 Tea grown near Huangshan in Anhui
Houkui 猴魁Monkey King
Bai Mudan 白牡丹White Peony tea
Baihao Yinzhen 白毫银针 Silver Needle tea.
Tieguanyin 铁观音Iron Goddess or Iron Buddha Tea named for Guanyin
Anxi 安溪 City in southern Fujian famous for their Tieguanyin Tea
Dancong 单枞The most famous tea coming from Guangdong province
Chaozhou 潮州 City bordering Shantou on the southeast coast of Guangdong
Shantou 汕头 City bordering Chaozhou on the southeast coast of Guangdong
Shaxian 沙县 County in west central Fujian province famous for, among other things, their snack foods.
Sanming 三明市 city located next to Sha County
Jinjunmei 金骏眉A kind of black tea from Tongmu Village in Wuyi Shan Fujian
Tongmu Village 桐木村 Village near Wuyi Shanknown as the birthplace of black tea
Rougui 肉桂茶 Another famous and beloved Rock Tea from the Wuyi Shan area
Da Hong Pao 大红袍茶 “Big Red Robe” tea. One of the greatest and renowned Rock Teas
Tieluohan 铁罗汉茶 Another famous and beloved Rock Tea from the Wuyi Shan area
Shuixian 水仙茶 Another famous and beloved Rock Tea from the Wuyi Shan area
Shui Jin Gui 水金龟茶 Another famous and beloved Rock Tea from the Wuyi Shan area
Bai Ji Guan 白鸡冠茶 Another famous and beloved Rock Tea from the Wuyi Shan area
Li Chunsheng 李春生 A Fujianese called Co-father of the Taiwan Tea industry. Left a great legacy in early Taiwan history.
Duyun Maojian 都匀毛尖 Tea from Duyun, Guizhou, about two hours by car west of the capital Guiyang.
Yugou Cha 鱼勾茶 Fish Hook Tea, former name of Duyun Maojian Tea
Guiding Yunwu 贵顶云雾茶 A famous tea of Guizhou Province
Meijiang Cuipian 眉江翠片茶 Another great Guizhou green tea
Liubao六堡 in the eastern part of Guangxi near the border with Guangdong. Famous for their black tea. Particularly popular in Malaysia and among most all Pu’er lovers.
Guiping Xishan tea 桂平西山茶Another great and much loved Guangxi Tea
Gan Lu Tea甘露茶 Sweet Dew Tea, the famous tea of Mengding Shan.
Wu Lizhen 吴理真 Buddhist Monk credited with the cultivation of tea on Mengding Shan.
Mengding Shan 蒙顶山 Mountain in Sichuan where tea cultivation began in China
Biancha 边茶 Border Tea, tea destined for the markets bordering China. They weren’t choosy.
Renmin Gongyuan 人民公园 Nice park in central Chengdu where you can kick back, drink tea and groove on a little Chengdu traditional culture.
Cháng zuǐhú 长嘴壶 A long spouted tea pot
Chama Gudao 茶马古道 the Ancient Tea Horse Road
Tú 荼 The old borrowed character for tea
Chá 茶 The character for tea, beginning around Lu Yu’s time in the Tang
Mengding shan Xueya 蒙顶山雪芽One of the big teas of the Mengding Shan area
Zhuyeqing 竹叶青茶 A great green tea from the E’Mei Shan area in Sichuan
Qingcheng shan Snow Bud 青城山雪芽茶Another great Sichuan Tea from the Dujiangyan area
E’mei Shan Maofeng 峨眉山毛峰 Yet another great green from Sichuan’s E’Mei Shan region.
E’Mei Shan Bai Ya 峨眉山白牙Same with this one. Another famous Sichuan tea.
Biluochun 碧螺春 “Green Snail Spring” tea from Jiangsu province.
Kangxi 康熙 Grandfather of Qianlong. Both of these emperors were great partons of imperial tea culture.
Ming Mei tea茗眉茶a.k.a Lady’s Slender Eyebrows Tea, grown in Wuyuan County just east of Jingdezhen and just south of
Wuyuan County 婺源县County in Jiangxi famous for, among other things, tea.
Lushan Yunwu 庐山云雾 Jiangxi’s famous Lushan Cloud and Mist tea
Jiujiang City 九江City on the western side of Lake Poyang in northwest Jiangxi
Zhu De 朱德 Mao’s oldest comrade and PLA Founder. A living legend in his time and beloved by the people.
Zhu De's poem about Lushan Yunwu Tea, with Pinyin:
Lúshān yúnwù chá, wèi nóng xìng pōlà, ruò dé chángshí yǐn, yánnián yìshòu fǎ.”
The flavor of Lushan Yunwu tea is strong and intense. If you drink it for long it is a way to attain longevity.
Yichang 宜昌 Historic city in southern Hubei
Jingmen 荆门Another ancient Hubei city located north of Yichang
Yuan’an County 远安县County in Hubei. Yichang is the administrative seat. Famous for their Yuan’an Lu Yuan Tea.
Yuan’an Lu Yuan远安鹿苑茶 The local specialty of Hubei Yuan’an County. A famous yellow tea
En’shi Yu Lu 恩施玉露茶 A Hubei green tea from the city of Enshi near the Wufeng Mountains
Junshan Yinzhen 君山银针茶 “Gentleman Mountain Silver Needle Tea”, a yellow tea only found on Junshan Island in Hunan.
Dongting Hu 洞庭湖 Lake Dongting, located in northern Hunan.
Hu 湖 Lake
Nan 南 South
Bei 北 North
Ba Shu 巴蜀 The ancient state in Sichuan who brought us tea cultivateon
Tang Taizong 唐太宗 The second emperor of the Tang Dynasty. Already enough said about him.
THE SPIRIT OF TEA, a book and traveling exhibition by tea lover and photographer Matthew London.
This here’s the link: http://www.spiritoftea.net/CHPto signup for your chance to win a signed BOOK.
“Tea in China: A Religious and Cultural History”by James A. Benn