Sat, 18 June 2016
Laszlo finishes up the story of the Yuan Dynasty, founded in 1271. The parts of China not yet conquered were done in by 1276 and the last holdouts gone by 1279. But the Great Yuan didn't last long. This episode takes a nice little overview of the dynasty, its slow demise and the legacy they left.
TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE
Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty
Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan
Golden Horde 金帐汗国 Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.
Arigh Böke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai
Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan
Zhao 赵 The surname of the Song dynasty ruling family
Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire
Zhengding 正定 A place adjacent to Shijiazhuang, site of Kublai Khan's mother's appanage.
Shijiazhuang 石家庄 Capital of Hebei Province
Hebei 河北 Province in northern China
Zhongtong Era 中统 Era during the Yuan 1260-1264
Zhiyuan Era 至元 Era during the Yuan 1264-1294
Jin Dynasty 金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda
Haiyun Chan Shi 海运禅师 Buddhist advisor to Kublai Khan
Liu Bingzhong 刘秉忠 Advisor to Kublai Khan on all matters architectural, feng shui and other things
Khitans 契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125
Kaiping 开平 Original name of Shangdu
Shangdu 上都 Known popularly as Xanadu, later became Kublai's summer palace
Chengde 承德 Better known in old history books as Jehol or Rehe, city northwest of Beijing
Hülegü 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui
Dadu 大都 Kublai Khan capital, also known as Khanbaliq, City of the Khan's, located in present day Beijing
Zhu Yuanzhang 朱元璋 Ming Dynasty founder
Karakorum 喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260, originally built by Ogedai Khan
Shandong 山东 Coastal province in the north, famous for a million things including Confucius
Li Tan 李璮 Loyal Yuan official up in Shandong who later led a rebellion against Mongol rule in China.
Shi Tianze 石天泽 One of Kublai Khan's most loyal and successful Han Chinese generals
Duke of Zhou 周公 Son of the Zhou Dynasty founder King Wen, brother to King Wu
Taizong 太宗 Co-founder of the Tang Dynasty, also known as Li Shimin
Han Wudi 汉武帝 Great conquering Han Dynasty emperor
Liu Bei 刘备 Mighty hero during the Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period. Founder of the Shu Han State.
Lantau Island 大屿山 Hong Kong's largest island, the international airport is located there
Zhao Kuangyin 赵匡胤 Song dynasty founder
Lizong 理宗 Southern Song emperor 1224-1264 Not a terribly good one.
Emperor Yang of the Sui 隋炀帝 Son of Sui Dynasty founder and final emperor of the Sui. Did some good and some bad. Had a lot of concubines
Empress Dowager Xie
Duzong emperor 度宗 Southern Song emperor from 1264 to 1274
Jia Sidao 贾似道 Southern Song chancellor
Aju 阿术 General and high ranking official during the Yuan. Grandson of Subotei
Subotei 速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.
Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.
Bayan of the Baarin 伯颜 Kublai's greatest general
Han Jiang 汉江 Tributary of the Yangzi flows from Shaanxi to Hubei
Hanshui 汉水 Another name for the Han JIang
Hubei ren 湖北人 Someone from Hubei
Wuchang 武昌 The city that makes up the Wu in Wuhan
Hankou 汉口 The city that makes the Han in Wuhan
Hanyang 汉阳 The third city of the Wuhan metropolitan area
Nanjing 南京 Ming Dynasty capital, also known as the ancient city of Jiankang
Jiankang 建康 Ancient name for Nanjing
Qiantang River 钱塘江 the southern terminus of the Grand Canal, flowed through Hangzhou
Xiangyang 襄阳 City in Hubei opposite the Han Shui from Fancheng
Fancheng 樊城 City in Hubei opposite the Han Shui from Xiangyang
Xiangfan 襄樊 The twin cities of Xiangyang and Fancheng
Hui Hui Pao 回回炮 "Muslim trebuchet"
Cai Jing 蔡京 Huizong's main official, great calligrapher, not terribly popular in his last years
Emperor Gong 恭帝 Southern Song emperor from 1274 to 1276
Changzhou 常州 City in Jiangsu who felt the wrath of the Khan
Huizong 徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song
Duanzong 端宗 Second to the last Southern Song emperor, died age 8
Lu Xiufu 陆秀夫 Official and Military man who served the Song dynasty till the last
Zhao Bing 赵昺 Last emperor of the Southern Song, also known as Huaizong
Huaizong 怀宗 Last Song emperor, also known as Zhao Bing
Hubilie 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.
Yunnan 云南 Southwestern province in China
Empress Chabi 察必皇后 favorite wife of Kublai Khan
Zhenjin 真金 Son of Kublai Khan, died before he succeeded his father as emperor
Shizu 世祖 Posthumous temple name of Kublai Khan
Temür Khan 完泽笃汗 Son of Zhenjin, later became the Chengzong emperor
Chengzong emperor 成宗 Succeeded Kublai Khan as Yuan Emperor
Külüg Khan 曲律汗 Also known as the Wuzong emperor
Wuzong emperor 武宗 Yuan emperor 1307-1311
Buyantu Khan 普颜笃汗 Also known as the Renzong Emperor
Renzong emperor 仁宗 Yuan Emperor 1311-1320, champion of Confucianists.
Zhu Xi 朱熹 Great Chinese philosopher, father of Neo-Confucianism
Si Shu 四书 the Four Books
The Lunyu 论语 The Analects
Mengzi 孟子 The Mencius
Daxue 大学 The Great Learning
Zhongyong 中庸 The Doctrine of the Mean
I Ching 易经 The Book of Changes. People swear by it.
Yingzong emperor 英宗 Yuan Dynasty emperor 1320-1323
Temuder 铁木迭儿 Yuan grand councillar during Yingzong
Taiding Emperor 泰定帝 Yuan emperor 1323-1328
Liangdu zhi zhan 两都之战 War of the Two Capitals
Toghon Temür 妥懽帖睦尔Mongolian name of Yuan emperor Shun
Emperor Shun 顺帝 Yuan emperor
Shun 舜 Last of the mythical Five Emperors, lived around 2200 BC
Yu the Great 大禹 Founder of the Xia Dynasty
Poyang Hu zhizhan 鄱阳湖之战 the Battle of Poyang Lake
Hongwu Emperor 洪武帝 Era name chosen by Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming dynasty
Liu Bang 刘邦 A.K.A. Han Gaozu, founder of the Han Dynasty
Longquan 龙泉 Ancient site near Lishui where some of the best porcelain ware in China was fired.
Lishui 丽水 City in southern Zhejiang
Jingdezhen 景德镇 The historic porcelain capital of China.
Zheng He 郑和 The Yongle Emperor's loyal admiral who led seven voyages to the west that went as far as the east coast of Africa
Wu Cheng 吴澄 Great Yuan dynasty scholar-official and student of Zhu Xi's philosophy
Guo Shoujing 郭守敬 Great Yuan dynasty scholar, scientist, engineer. The "Tycho Brahe of China"
Zhao Mengfu 赵孟頫 Great Yuan era painter, descended from the Song royal family, married to Guan Daosheng.
Guan Daosheng 管道昇 Called "China's greatest female painter". Married to Zhao Mengfu...an amazing couple in their day
Liu Guandao 刘贯道 Another great Yuan dynasty painter
Alec Ash's new book: Wish Lanterns: Young Lives in New China
Barbarians at the Gate Podcast: Get it H E R E at Jeremiah's Granite Studio page.
And check out Sixth Tone at http://www.sixthtone.com/