The China History Podcast (Podcasts)

The saga continues with the splintering of the Beiyang Army into factions or cliques who will battle each other for supremacy of the government. Hubei military governor Wang Zhanyuan will be examined as one of the textbook examples of how these generals evolved into warlords. Zhili Clique leaders Cao Kun and Wu Peifu will also be introduced.

Direct download: CHP-234-The_Chinese_Warlord_Era_Part_4.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 12:05pm PST

The saga continues as the demise of Yuan Shikai is followed by the rise of Duan Qirui and Feng Guozhang. The Beiyang Military machine begins to crack into two main factions or cliques. This episode we will also hear about the exploits and imperial dreams of the Mafoo Warlord, Zhang Xun. And as the world mainly focused on the Great War in Europe, these two years of 1917-1918 were filled with so many momentous events in Republican China.

Direct download: CHP-233-The_Chinese_Warlord_Era_Part_3.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:00pm PST

We looked at the setup for the Warlord Era last episode.  This time in Part 2 we focus on the rise and fall of Yuan Shikai and all the measures he took between 1911-1916. These all primed the pump for the Warlord Era that followed his sudden death in June 1916.    

Direct download: CHP-232-The_Chinese_Warlord_Era_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:59pm PST

After years of requests to cover this topic Laszlo finally gets around to the history of China's Warlord Era that lasted from 1916 to 1928 and into the Nanjing Decade. In this Part 1 episode Laszlo gives some background into the historical developments that led to the rise of, who some call, the first warlord, Yuan Shikai.

Direct download: CHP-231-The_Chinese_Warlord_Era-Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:00pm PST

In this episode Laszlo introduces one of the great military heroes of the Ming Dynasty. Though rather well-known to Chinese who went through the public school systems of Greater China, little is known of him elsewhere. Qi Jiguang helped to rid the China coast of pirates (Wōkòu) and through his epic Great Wall restoration engineering project he kept the Mongol menace at bay and preserved the Ming Dynasty for an additional half century. His two military treatises were required reading into modern times and he contributed greatly to the introduction of Chinese martial arts into the military as a training regimen.

Direct download: CHP-230-Pirate_and_Mongol_Slayer_Qi_Jiguang.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:01pm PST

In this special CHP episode produced in partnership with the 21st Century China Center at the University of California-San Diego, I am honored and privileged to host a discussion with the three editors of the new book "China Tripping - Experiencing the Everyday in the People's Republic." I hope you will delight in this program brought to you in two parts. It was both riveting and insightful for me to hear Paul Pickowicz, Perry Link and Jeremy Murray speak about the making of the book and listening to their own excerpts that were as brief as they were rich and meaningful.  I hope you'll enjoy this as much as I enjoyed being the host. 

https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781538123690/China-Tripping-Encountering-the-Everyday-in-the-People%E2%80%99s-Republic

Jeremy A. Murray is Associate Professor of History at California State University, San Bernardino.

Perry Link is Chancellorial Chair for Teaching Across Disciplines at the University of California, Riverside.

Paul G. Pickowicz is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of History and Chinese Studies at the University of California, San Diego. 

Direct download: China_Tripping_Part_1_CHP-21C_Version.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:20am PST

In this special CHP Part 2 episode produced in partnership with the 21st Century China Center at the University of California-San Diego, I am honored and privileged to host a discussion with the three editors of the new book "China Tripping - Experiencing the Everyday in the People's Republic." I hope you will delight in this program brought to you in two parts. It was both riveting and insightful for me to hear Paul Pickowicz, Perry Link and Jeremy Murray speak about the making of the book and listening to their own excerpts that were as brief as they were rich and meaningful.  I hope you'll enjoy this as much as I enjoyed being the host.  https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781538123690/China-Tripping-Encountering-the-Everyday-in-the-People%E2%80%99s-Republic

Jeremy A. Murray is Associate Professor of History at California State University, San Bernardino.

Perry Link is Chancellorial Chair for Teaching Across Disciplines at the University of California, Riverside.

Paul G. Pickowicz is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of History and Chinese Studies at the University of California, San Diego. 

Direct download: China_Tripping_Part_2_CHP.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:45am PST

Laszlo finally gets around to one of the most requested topics of all time. In this episode the history behind the Kowloon Walled City is introduced from its humble beginnings starting in the Southern Song to its later demolition during the early 1990's. 

Direct download: CHP-229-The_Kowloon_Walled_City.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:53pm PST

We finish off the series on the Seven Great Singing Stars of Shanghai by examining the lives of the three remaining women, Li Xianglan, Yao Li and Zhou Xuan. Yao Li sadly passed away only a month ago on July 19. I hope you enjoyed this little three-part overview covering the lives of many of these early 20th century singers and musicians who gave us this amazing sound that's still enjoyed by millions around the world. Check the links below or search for any of the seven stars introduced. Their music is freely available all over the internet and on Spotify.

Direct download: chp228.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:39am PST

In this second part of the series Laszlo and special guest Spun Counterguy introduce Bai Hong, Bai Guang, Gong Qiuxia and Wu Yingyin.  These four superstars of that golden era of music and entertainment left behind a string of hits that still inspires feelings of reminiscence for those days gone by.  Yao Li, who sadly passed away recently on July 19, 2019 as well as Li Xianglan and Zhou Xuan will be covered in Part 3.

Direct download: CHP-227-The_Seven_Great_Singing_Stars_of_Shanghai_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 3:09pm PST

In this latest CHP installment Laszlo finally gets around to introducing The Seven Great Singing Stars of old Shanghai whose performing skills on the silver screen and on 78 records provide us with a nostalgic glimpse of long gone and controversial era. In this Part 1 episode we will focus on the one who made it all possible, the talented Li Jinhui. Mr. Spun Counterguy from the "In the Corner Back By the Woodpile" podcast joins Laszlo to assist in telling this story.  Next time in Part 2 we'll look at the first four of these Seven Great Singing Stars of 1930's and 40's Shanghai.

Direct download: CHP_226_take_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:00pm PST

The CHP 8-Part series on the history of Tang Poetry concludes with this episode that looks at the lives of three more poets:  Li He, Du Mu and Li Shangyin.  And for an encore Laszlo will recite poems from all three of these greats.  The Late Tang period of Chinese poetry was marked with all the signs of an imperial house in decline.  It was a sad and melancholy time and quite a few Late Tang poems expressed the hopelessness felt during these sorrowful years.

Direct download: CHP-225-The_History_of_Tang_Poetry_Part_8.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:49pm PST

In this seventh installment of the history of Tang poetry we move on to the Middle Tang period. While the poetry might not be as celebrated as that produced during the High Tang, there were still many figures beloved in their own time and all through the centuries. We'll look at three of them in this episode: Bai Juyi, Yuan Zhen and Xue Tao. Next episode we'll finish off the series with the Late Tang poets.

Direct download: CHP-224-The_History_of_Tang_Poetry_Part_7.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 9:38am PST

Laszlo finishes up the High Tang period of Chinese poetry. Wang Wei and Meng Haoran are showcased in this episode.

Direct download: CHP-223-The_History_of_Tang_Poetry_Part_6.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:06pm PST

This is the Du Fu episode. Along with Li Bai, discussed last episode, he's considered the greatest poet in Chinese history. That's of course a matter of opinion. We'll take a brief look at the rough road Du Fu had to walk most of his years. In addition to looking at his life we'll hear a few of his regulated verse poems.

Direct download: CHP-222-The_History_of_Tang_Poetry_Part_5.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:39pm PST

Li Bai is showcased in this fourth installment of Laszlo's not very deep dive into the history of Tang poetry. We're still in the High Tang period of Chinese poetry. This episode will focus more on Li Bai's story (and legend) rather than an in-depth analysis of his poetry. He, along with several other poets from this time are cultural icons and treasures of the Chinese people. Check the links and resources for other scholarly and biographical info on Li Bai, Du Fu and other great Tang poets. This episode is especially geared towards those CHP listeners who may have never heard these names before.

Direct download: CHP-221-The_History_of_Tang_Poetry_Part_4.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:47am PST

Finally in this part 3 episode Laszlo gets to the Tang poetry part of the series. After finishing up some of the good stuff that came out of the Six Dynasties, we'll get a first look at the Early and High Tang periods. More poets and more great poetry compilations will also be introduced. A lot of names and titles of works this episode. Feel free to check the terms from the episode and read up on some of them. Plenty of links to translated works of Classical Chinese poetry. If this series is piquing your interest, even a little, there's a whole world out there for you to explore.

Direct download: CHP-220-The_History_of_Tang_Poetry_Part_3.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 9:13am PST

In Part 2 Laszlo will finish up an overview of pre-Tang poetry and show where everything went from the Classic of Poetry and Songs of Chu.  Fu rhapsodies, Yue Fu poetry and the works from the Jian'an era will be introduced.  Tang poetry didn't arise out of nothing.  It was the collective genius and creativity of all these pre and post-Qin Chinese literati who built the foundation that the Tang masters built on. Please come back for Part 3 where we'll finally get to the early Tang (maybe).

Direct download: CHP-219-The_History_of_Tang_Poetry_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:22pm PST

In this first of a series introducing the history of the development of Chinese poetry, Laszlo focuses on the two most important works from Pre-Qin China.  These were the Classic of Poetry and the Songs of Chu. Though we will not get to the Tang Dynasty in this episode, we'll look at what came prior and how each new style impacted newer emerging styles of poetry. The life of Qu Yuan and Chu Kingdom will also be introduced.

Direct download: CHP-218-The_History_of_Tang_Poetry_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 3:54pm PST

Laszlo continues his shallow dive into the Hokkien people with a focus on the history of the Hokkien diaspora who populated many cities and towns throughout Southeast Asia.    

Direct download: CHP-217-The_History_of_the_Hokkien_People_Part_2R.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:55am PST

We're back in ancient times once again, this time looking at the homeland of the Hokkien people. As we've done with other groups of Southern Chinese (Teochew, Toi San, Hakka) this time Laszlo provides a broad overview of the people from the south of Fujian Province, the Hokkien or Hoklo people.  Before we get into the Qing era diaspora, Laszlo focuses on how Fujian developed from a land populated by Yuè people to a part of Han Dynasty China with a focus on the Minyue Kingdom.

Direct download: CHP-216-The_History_of_the_Hokkien_People_Part_1R.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:29pm PST

In this longer than expected Part 2 episode we look at Wellington Koo's role in the Paris Peace Conference and all the drama that surrounded this historic event from one hundred years ago.  Then we'll look at the rest of Koo's career as a statesman, diplomat and later as a judge.  

Direct download: CHP-215-Wellington_Koo_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:13am PST

With the centenary of the Paris Peace Conference now upon us this month, I thought this would be the perfect opportunity to commemorate the event by introducing the life of Wellington Koo.  In this first of a two-part series we will look at the historical events that shaped his early life and career.  In this Part 1 episode we will look at the backstory and setup to the Conference.  Then in Part 2 we will look at the dramatic events that went on between January and April 1919 as well as the latter half of Wellington Koo's life.

Direct download: CHP-214-Wellington_Koo_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:04am PST

In this final episode of the series Laszlo introduces the Shanghai Ghetto, the final years of WWII and the aftermath.  Please check the show notes at the web site for all kinds of books and videos from this period.  Thanks to everyone who made it through all six episodes.

Direct download: CHP-213-The_History_of_the_Jewish_Refugees_in_China_Part_6.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:51pm PST

The drama continues with the final arrivals of European Jewish refugees into Shanghai, 1941-42. Afterwards, the China option, that had previously served as a safety net for Jews seeking refuge far from the Nazi's, was no longer available. Sugihara Chiune, Tadeusz Romer, Laura Margolis and others are also introduced in this episode. The series will conclude in the next episode.

Direct download: CHP-212-The_History_of_the_Jewish_Refugees_in_China_Part_5.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:10pm PST

Laszlo looks at Japanese attitudes towards the Jews and how it affected their treatment in Shanghai.  The focus will be on the year 1939, when the the greatest wave of Jewish refugees arrived in Shanghai. Then we will look at a little known tidbit from history concerning a plan championed by Sun Ke (son of Sun Yat-sen) to  rescue of Europe's Jews.

Direct download: CHP-211-The_History_of_the_Jewish_Refugees_in_China_Part_4.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:30pm PST

This third episode in a series examining the history of the Jewish refugees who found sanctuary on the east coast of China, focuses on escalating events in Europe around 1938-1939. With the consolidation of Hitler's rise, it didn't bode well for many Jews. As the countdown to Kristallnacht gets closer the situation becomes more urgent and Shanghai as a destination becomes more popular. The great humanitarian He Fengshan (何凤山) will also be introduced.

Direct download: CHP-210-The_History_of_the_Jewish_Refugees_in_China_Part_3.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:47pm PST

With the story of the Harbin Jews mostly out of the way, Laszlo moves on to the smaller and less known Jewish community of Tianjin.  Then as the 1930's unfolds and after Hitler came to power, our story shifts to the European Jews. In this episode we'll look at the events leading up to Kristallnacht November 1938. In Part 3 we'll focus on 1938 and 1939.

Direct download: CHP-209-The_History_of_the_Jewish_Refugees_in_China_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:51pm PST

Laszlo is back with a new series that looks at the history of the Jewish refugees who came to China during the first part of the twentieth century. In this episode, after a long drawn out intro that examines a bit of background on Jewish history, Laszlo explains how many Jews made their way to China to escape hard times back home. In the next episode the story will continue with more from Harbin, Tianjin and Shanghai. All Yiddish and Jewish terms from this episode can be found in the usual list of terms that accompanies each episode.

Direct download: CHP-208-The_History_of_the_Jewish_Refugees_in_China_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 9:21am PST

In commemoration of the American Labor Day Holiday, Laszlo brings you a rather forgotten tale from the annals of Chinese modern history. Discussed in previous CHP episodes, the Chinese Labour Corps played a thankless but critical role in the allied victory over Germany in WWI. Who could have predicted the series of events that would happen as a result of the story of these men and the subsequent peace treaty that didn't recognize them or their country. When it was over in early 1919, the Chinese people woke up and took appropriate action. Happy Labor Day!!!

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Direct download: CHP-207-The_Forgotten_Chinese_Labour_Corps.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:06pm PST

In this episode Laszlo introduced the great Nederlander Robert van Gulik. In his relatively short life van Gulik made a name for himself as a scholar, diplomat and writer. His sixteen novels featuring the "stern but fair-minded" Judge Dee offered his worldwide readership a peak into 7th century Tang China society. Judge Dee was based on the historical person Di Renjie, an important official and minister of state during the reign of Empress Wu Zetian. Van Gulik was fascinated with the Chinese "gong'an" detective novel genre of literature and did a lot to popularize it around the world.

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Direct download: CHP-206-Robert_van_Gulik_and_Judge_Dee.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:30pm PST

Laszlo presents another story from the annals of Chinese-American history. This one takes place during the Exclusion years and spotlights the Chinese colony of Eastern Oregon. This is the story of Ing "Doc" Hay and his lifelong friend and business partner Long On, two Toi Son immigrants who built their American dream on the frontier. Ing Hay was a trained Chinese herbal doctor and pulsologist and he brought this unique skill to the American West. This isn't your typical American immigrant story but then again, Ing Hay and Long On weren't your typical immigrants.

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Direct download: CHP-205-Ing_Doc_Hay_Lung_On_and_the_Kam_Wah_Chung.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:56am PST

We continue on from last episode's overview of the Chinese martial arts history timeline. Today we zero in on the history and (mostly) legends behind the Wing Chun style of king fu.  We'll also look at Grandmaster Ip Man and all those Wing Chin greats who came before him going back to the founder Ng Mui (Wu Mei).I wanted to emphasize that almost all of what we know about Wing Chun today was passed down orally before it was written down late in its history.  We only know the names of the great masters mentioned in this episode, through the stories and legends that were told and re-told to successive generations of Wing Chun martial artists.

Thanks to Detroit attorney and unofficial Wing Chun ambassador Michael Benkstein for all the support and input that went into this series. And thanks also to Peter Söderbaum for his kind comments

Direct download: CHP-204-Chinese_Martial_Arts_Wing_Chun_Ip_Man_Part_2RNov2018.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 3:30pm PST

Don't be fooled by the title. Wing Chin and Ip Man will be covered next episode. Today's the first in a two part series that offers up a survey of the development of martial arts in China from the mythical times of the Yellow Emperor to the present day. Let's look at the China history timeline once more, with feeling, and see how these martial arts embraced by millions and millions around the world slowly developed through the centuries. This will serve as the setup to next episode when we zero in on one particular style of martial arts and one of its best known masters.

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Direct download: CHP-203-Chinese_Martial_Arts_Wing_Chun_Ip_Man_Part_1YT.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:51pm PST

From Zhao Tuo to the present day, the history of the relations of these two great countries and frenemies is a great story. In this episode we enter the 20th century and explore the end of French domination in Indochina, Vietnam's fight to unify the country and the most recent Sino-Viet history. All three Indochina Wars will be discussed and the outcomes they produced. Although this six-part series was only a simple 走马看花 overview of the subject, I hope anyone not schooled in the basics of this history is leaving the table satisfied. Cảm ơn đã lắng nghe!

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Direct download: CHP-202-The_History_of_China-Vietnam_Relations_Part_6R.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:39am PST

The series picks up in the early part of the Later Lê and finishes off in the 19th century with the arrival of La France and the beginnings of Indochine. Many heroes from Vietnam history will make appearances in this episode. Be sure to come back next time for the exciting conclusion of this overview of China-Vietnam Relation.

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Direct download: CHP-201-The_History_of_China-Vietnam_Relations_Part_5RNov2018.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:44pm PST

In this landmark two-hundredth episode Laszlo carries the story of China-Vietnam forward, beginning with the three Mongol invasions of Đại Việt during the Trần Dynasty. We'll get as far as the great (Later) Lê Dynasty founding emperor and resistance hero Lê Lợi.

 

 


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Direct download: CHP-200-The_History_of_China-Vietnam_Relations_Part_4RNov2018.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 9:10am PST

The CHP series covering the history of China-Vietnam Relations continues with Part 3. This episode will take the history all the way up to the Tran Dynasty on the eve of the Mongol invasions from Yuan Dynasty China. Heroes from Vietnam history making an appearance in this episode include Ngô Quyền, Lê Hoàn, Lý Thái Tổ, Lý Thường Kiệt and Trần Thái Tông. Sorry about inundating everyone with this deluge of Chinese and Vietnamese names. I'll keep everything listed in the terms from each episode found on the webpage at teacup.media.

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Direct download: CHP-199-The_History_of_China-Vietnam_Relations_Part_3RNov2018.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 9:23pm PST

Shi Xie's impact on bringing Chinese culture to the Jiao region is discussed. For most of this period, Vietnam remained under the direct administrative control of China. Aside from a few quiet moments, there was sustained local unrest to deal with. Either local Viets were rising up against their Chinese overlords or there was a constant battle being fought with Lao, Linyi, Champa and other tribes, states, and kingdoms that surrounded Vietnam to the west and south. It was also a period where great Viet national heroes and heroines start getting written into the record. Sorry once again for the wooden sounding Vietnamese pronunciation.

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Direct download: CHP-198-The_History_of_China-Vietnam_Relations_Part_2RNov2018.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:57am PST

In this first of a multipart series, Laszlo explores the ancient relationship between China and Vietnam. In this episode, the earliest days going back to Zhao Tuo and the Nanyue Kingdom are discussed. A thousand apologies for the poor editing job splicing the Vietnamese pronunciation. I'm hoping for an A for effort at least. The remaining episodes will go off more smoothly. Thank you for your understanding.

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Direct download: CHP-197-The_History_of_China-Vietnam_Relations_Part_1RNov2018.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:52am PST

Laszlo finishes off this brief overview of The Honorable Company as tea takes center stage in the history. It's a very rough landing for the East India Company as their commercial rivals and political enemies gradually put an end to their winning run going back to the 17th century.

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Direct download: CHP-196-The_History_of_the_British_East_India_Company_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 10:01am PST

Maybe this isn't the most "China history flavored" topic but The Honorable Company did play a somewhat starring role during the Qing Dynasty starting from about the Jiaqing Emperor.  In this first of a two-part series, I am offering you an overview of who they were, where they came from and how they came to be so hated by so many.  I originally did this series for Cathay Pacific Airways' Inflight Entertainment system as an accompaniment to the "Taboo" miniseries starring Tom Hardy.  And now I'm taking these leftovers out of the fridge, taking the foil off and after sixty seconds in the microwave....here it is....in two easy to digest parts.  Enjoy!
Direct download: CHP-195-The_History_of_the_British_East_India_Company_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:58pm PST

In this episode, Laszlo looks at U.S. Immigration during the bad old days of Chinese Exclusion. The subject will be examined through the telling of the stories of three rather plain and non-extraordinary brothers from Haiyang Village in Toi San (Taishan in Mandarin). These three Moy brothers were featured in Scott Seligman's 2013 book "Three Tough Chinamen" (Earnshaw Books). In addition to the Chinese Exclusion laws, Laszlo briefly introduces the life of another Toisanese, Ng Poon Chew. And at no extra price, Laszlo also gives the history of the Taishan region a nice neat overview. Check the links below for more great reading.

Direct download: CHP-194-The_History_of_Toisan_and_US_Immigration.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:55pm PST

In this episode, Laszlo tries something new. This time we look at the life and times of Whitey Smith.  Who?   

Direct download: CHP-193-Whitey_Smith_and_Early_Shanghai_Jazz.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 10:59am PST

Laszlo emerges from the post-holiday festivities to finish off the series, picking up from the last episode of the life and work of Wang Yangming. The differences between the two main schools of Neo-Confucianism is further discussed: the Lu-Wang School of the Mind (Xinxue) and the Cheng-Zhu School of Principle (Lixue). We also saved philosopher Zou Yan and the Five Elements (Wuxing) for last. And that completes this nine-part set course meal in the History of Chinese Philosophy. If anything spoke to you, you're now armed and ready to do as many deeper dives into all these schools of thought as your heart desires.

Direct download: CHP-192-The_History_of_Chinese_Philosophy_Part_9.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:26am PST

This is an all Neo-Confucian episode. Last episode, Laszlo introduced three of the five founders of Neo-Confucianism: Zhou Dunyi, Shao Yong and Zhang Zai. This time we finish off with the remaining two founders: the Cheng Brothers, Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi. And taking this rich harvest to the next level is Zhu Xi. The basic tenets of Neo-Confucianism are introduced, with a focus on lǐ (principle) and xīn (mind) and how these two concepts caused a great divide in the two main schools of Neo-Confucianism. Qì (life-force) is also examined, and how that fits into the big picture. The episode closes with an introduction to the extraordinary life of someone getting a lot of press these days in China, Wang Yangming, and his contributions to Neo-Confucianism. 

 

Direct download: CHP-191-The_History_of_Chinese_Philosophy_Part_8.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:05am PST

In the late Han Dynasty, philosophy was a lot more complex than in Confucius's time. The focus in this episode is on philosophical thought in the Tang Dynasty (618-907).  From the fall of the Han dynasty in 220, all the way through the Six Dynasties, Buddhism had spread quickly throughout the disunited kingdoms of China. By the time the father and son team of Yang Jian and Yang Guang stabilized and united China into a new empire in 589, Buddhism had taken root and appealed to the weary masses and the aristocrats. Later in the Tang Dynasty, Confucianism reasserted itself, and after the brilliant work of Han Yu, Li Ao and Liu Zongyuan, it set the stage for the third epoch in Confucianism during the Song dynasty. Laszlo also briefly introduces three of the founding fathers of Neo Confucianism, Zhou Dunyi, Shao Yong and Zhang Zai

 
Direct download: CHP-190-The_History_of_Chinese_Philosophy_Part_7.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:38am PST

Laszlo gives the subject of Daoism, the Daodejing and the Zhuangzi a fresh makeover, covered before in an old China History Podcast episode from days gone by. The history of Daoism is explored as well as its main characters, Laozi and Zhuangzi, and what they called for in those dark Eastern Zhou times. Daoism is both a philosophy and a religion, but this episode only explores the former. The Xuanxue thinkers Wang Bi, Guo Xiang and Xiang Xiu are also discussed, as well as the Neo-Daoism that evolved in the Han. As Daoism and Confucianism evolved in China, side by side, there was occasionally some interesting overlap. Confucians from here on out actively explored ways to reconcile their philosophy with the other major contending schools of thought, Daoism and Buddhism.

Direct download: CHP-189-The_History_of_Chinese_Philosophy_Part_6.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 10:03am PST

Legalism takes front and center stage in this episode. After the conquest of the competing Warring States in 221 BCE by Qin Shihuang, a new ideology was embraced by the new Chinese state. The Legalist philosophers Shang Yang, Shen Buhai, Shen Dao, Han Fei and Li Si are all introduced as well as their individual and collective contributions in laying the Legalist foundations for what was to follow in the Qin dynasty, and over the next two thousand years of imperial Chinese history. Laszlo also shows what happened to Legalism right after the Qin Emperor met his untimely end, and how this led to Confucianism's greatest triumph in the Han dynasty thanks to Dong Zhongshu and others.

Direct download: CHP-188-The_History_of_Chinese_Philosophy_Part_5R.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:38am PST

Laszlo is back on track, picking up where we left off in part two following the death of Master Kong in 479 BCE. A lot happened in the world of Chinese philosophy right after Confucius passed. He had both disciples who carried on his teachings, and naysayers who pointed to flaws in this Ru School of philosophy and offered an alternative kind of thought. As the countdown to the milestone year of 221 BCE gets nearer, a hundred schools of thought contended like never before, each offering their solutions to the tumultuous and bloody times of the latter half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty

Direct download: CHP-187-The_History_of_Chinese_Philosophy_Part_4.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 1:05pm PST

Although covered before in an old China History Podcast episode, Laszlo takes the Yi Jing (I Ching, sometimes called the ‘Book of Changes’) off the shelf for a total makeover and freshening up. In this brief detour along the history timeline, Laszlo picks the Yi Jing apart and offers up both a history of this timeless classic as well as a brief intro about how it works and the role it plays in the life of some people. The Yi Jing is a book with a lot of staying power and has been kept as a handy reference guide for hundreds of millions of people over the millennia. Listen to what it's all about and see for yourself if the Yi Jing can serve you:

Direct download: CHP-186-The_History_of_Chinese_Philosophy_Part_3r.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:18am PST

In this second helping of Laszlo's overview of the history of Chinese philosophy, the Great Sage himself is the center of focus. Arguably China's most famous citizen of all time, Confucius (and his disciples) created an ideology and political system that had incredible lasting power. Part two examines the stories surrounding Confucius's life growing up and operating in the State of Lu during the last decades of the Spring and Autumn period of the Zhou Dynasty. In addition to the trials and tribulations faced by Master Kong in his day, the basic tenets of Confucianism are introduced.

Direct download: CHP-185-The_History_of_Chinese_Philosophy_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:46am PST

After the longest break in the action since 2001, The CHP is back with this pleasant little 9-Part overview covering the history of Chinese philosophy. The series will run from pre-Confucian times clear through to Wang Yangming in the mid Ming Dynasty, a period stretching for more than two thousand years. And don't forget to download the free Infographic that will accompany the series. I predict it will do wonders in keeping all the names, dates, philosophies and texts straight. Thanks for your patience! I hope you enjoy the series.

Direct download: CHP-184-The_History_of_Chinese_Philosophy_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 10:33am PST

Laszlo finishes off the overview of the Rape of Nanking as well as the stories of John Rabe, Robert O. Wilson, Minnie Vautrin, Rev. William Magee and others who directed the Nanjing Safety Zone during the worst weeks of the atrocities.  The aftermath of the Nanjing Massacre is also examined.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

The Nanjing Safety Zone   Nánjīng Ānqúan Qū 南京安全区

Jīnlíng Women's College 金陵女子大学 Now part of Nanjing Normal University

Jīnlíng 金陵  ancient name of Nanjing during the Zhou Dynasty

Zhū Dé 朱德 Red Army founder

Péng Déhuái 彭德怀 Great PLA general and later defense minister

Nana-san-ichi Butai  731部队 Unit 731, based in Harbin

General Shiro Ishii 石井四郎 Director of Unit 731

Joseph Mengele The German version of Shiro Ishii.

Nánjīng Dà Túshā 南京大屠杀 The Nanjing Massacre

Okamura Yasuji  岡村宁次 Japanese general who led the brutal Three All’s Policy to Kill all, Burn all, Loot all

Yasukuni Shrine 靖国神社 Shinto shrine that commemorates those who died for the Empire of Japan

Shì shí qiú shì   实事求是 seek truth from facts, originally from the ancient Book of Han, later made famous by Chairman Mao and then even more famous by Deng Xiaoping.

 

LINKS:

Iris Chang, "The Rape of Nanking - The Forgotten Holocaust if World War II"

"The Good German of Nanking - The Diaries of John Rabe"

Jay Taylor, "The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China"

Rana Mitter, "Forgotten Ally: China's World War II 1937-1945"

Honda Katsuichi, "The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame"

Sinica Podcast April 7, 2015 with Lucy Hornby "Comfort Women and the struggle for reparations"

Isaac Meyer's excellent History of Japan Podcast

YouTube link to the Nanking movie mentioned in CHP-183 Nanjing Massacre Part 2

Direct download: CHP-183-The_Nanjing_Massacre_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:51pm PST

By popular demand Laszlo finally introduces the Nanjing Massacre.  This is a very emotional, controversial and sensitive subject for a whole lot of reasons.  Over the next two episodes Laszlo will review material from past episodes to discuss the lead-up to the Massacre. Then in Part 2 the actual event itself as well as the story of the Nanjing Safety Zone and some of the foreigners who became eyewitnesses to the horrors of the Nanjing Massacre.  It's also referred to as the Nanking Massacre and the Rape of Nanking.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

Rape of Nanking Nánjīng Dà Túshā 南京大屠杀 (Japanese 南京大虐杀) Also referred to as the Nanjing (Nanking) Massacre.

Zēng Guófán 曾国藩  1811-1872 Viceroy of Zhili, founder of the Xiang Army that helped put down the Taiping Rebellion.

Zhào Qīzhèng 赵启正  PRC official who has mostly been associated with news organizations.

Kublai Khan 忽必烈 Yuan Dynasty founder and grandson of Chinggiz Khan

Zhāng Chúnrú 张纯如 Iris Chang 1968-2004, American writer.

Honda Katsuichi 本多勝 Japanese journalist and writer who wrote extensively on the Rape of Nanking.

Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarian (Japanese 攘夷勅命 Sonnō Jōi)

Zūnwáng Rǎngyí 尊王攘夷 The Mandarin version of the above phrase.

Lǐ Hóngzhāng 李鸿章 1823-1901 Successor to Zeng Guofan, top late Qing era diplomat

Treaty of Shimonoseki 下关条约 Signed 1895 at conclusion of 1st Sino-Japanese war

Zhāng Zuòlín 张作霖 Warlord of Manchuria from 1922 - 1928.

Prime Minister Hamaguchi Osachi 濱口雄幸 Japanese Prime Minister 1929-1931

Jiǔyībā  九一八 The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931

Manchukuo (Mǎnzhōuguó) 满洲国 Lasted from 1932 to 1945. Puppet state in Manchuria

Pǔ Yí 溥仪 The last Qing Emperor, also known as the Xuantong 宣统帝Emperor. Emperor of Manchukuo.

Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi 犬養毅 Japanese prime Minster from 1931-1932.

Héběi 河北 Northern province of China, where Beijing and Tianjin are geographically located.

Shānxī 山西 Northern Province of China, capital at Taiyuan

Shāndōng 山东 Coastal northern province

Tiānjìn 天津 Northern city in China just east of Beijing

Lúshān 庐山 Mountain resort in Jiangxi popular with Nationalist and Communist leaders as a meeting place.

Jiāngxī 江西 Province in China, capital at Nanchang

Zhōu Dynasty 周朝  Ancient dynasty of China

Bái Chóngxǐ 白崇禧  NRA general, close ally to Li Zongren

Lǐ Zōngrén 李宗仁 Major military and political figure during the 1920's and 30's. Had a stormy relationship with Chiang Kai-shek.

Chóngqìng 重庆 City in Sichuan province, now a stand-alone municipality

Wǔhàn 武汉 City in Hubei on the Yangzi River

Lǎobǎixìng 老百姓 The people, in this case the Chinese people, (the old 100 surnames).

Jiāng-Zhè  江浙区 region Abbreviation for the Jiangsu-Zhejiang region

Yamaguchi Tsutomu 山口 彊 1916-2010 A survivor of both the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings August 6 and 9, 1945.

Nánchāng 南昌 Capital city of Jiangxi province

Táng Shēngzhì  唐生智   Nationalist general who was tasked with defending Nanjing

Sūn Quán  孙权 Three Kingdoms era leader of the State of Sun Wu.

Matsui Iwane 松井石根  Imperial Japanese Army Commander-in-chief for the Shanghai-Nanjing Region

Nakajima Kesago 中岛今朝吾  Lt. Gen. in the Imperial Japanese Army

Yanagawa Heisuke 柳川平助 General in the Imperial Japanese Army

Sūzhōu 苏州 City in Jiangsu province renowned for a thousand things

Emperor Hirohito (Emperor Showa 昭和天皇) Emperor of Japan 1926-1989

Prince Asaka Yasuhiko 朝香宮鳩彦王 1887-1981 General in the Imperial Japanese Army, uncle of Emperor Hirohito.

Ānhuī 安徽   Province in central China

LINKS:

Iris Chang, "The Rape of Nanking - The Forgotten Holocaust if World War II"

"The Good German of Nanking - The Diaries of John Rabe"

Jay Taylor, "The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China"

Rana Mitter, "Forgotten Ally: China's World War II 1937-1945"

Honda Katsuichi, "The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame"

Sinica Podcast April 7, 2015 with Lucy Hornby "Comfort Women and the struggle for reparations"

Isaac Meyer's excellent History of Japan Podcast

YouTube link to the Nanking movie mentioned in CHP-183 Nanjing Massacre Part 2

Direct download: CHP-182-The_Nanjing_Massacre_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:49pm PST

After more than 40 days wandering in the desert Laszlo is back with a topic that languished on the list for more than six years. At last the early years of Russia-China relations can see the light of day (here at Teacup Media, that is). As you can see, this is another one of those hour plus episodes that was not long enough for two episodes and a bit overly long for one. Basically this covers the beginnings back in the late Ming when they first met and mostly in the Qing where all the history happened. This isn't a particularly deep dive on the subject. I first give you a 走马看花 view of the history of Russia's expansion east and how they ended up on the doorstep of Manchuria. Hope you don't mind.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

Míng Dynasty 明朝 Second to last dynasty in Chinese Imperial history 1368-1644

Lóngqìng 隆庆 Ming Dynasty Emperor (1567-1572)

Wànlì 万里 Son of Longqing Emperor, reigned a long time 1572-1620

Qing Dynasty 清朝 Last imperial dynasty in China 1644-1912

Xīnjiāng 新疆   Autonomous Region in the northwest of China, formerly referred to as Chinese Turkestan

Hēilóng Jiāng 黑龙江 The Black Dragon River (The Amur, and name of Heilongjiang Province)

Shùn Zhì 顺治   First emperor of the Qing Dynasty, 1643-1661

Pǔyí 溥仪   The Last Emperor, a.k.a. The Xuantong Emperor, reigned 1908-1912

Northern Sòng  北宋 The first half of the Song Dynasty, lasted from 960-1126

Kāngxī   康熙   Long reigning Qing Emperor, 1661-1722

Jiāyùguān   嘉峪关   The western terminus of the Great Wall of China

Songgotu (Suǒ'étú) 索额图 Manchu diplomat during the reign of Kangxi

Qiánlóng  乾隆  Another long reigning Qing emperor, 1735-1796

Treaty of Nanjing  南京条约 The marquee "Unequal Treaty" signed in 1842

Hóng Xiùquán 洪秀全 Rebel leader responsible for the Taiping Rebellion

Jīntián, Guangxi 广西金田   Place where the Taiping Rebellion was launched

Tàipíng Rebellion  太平天国运动   A bloody Rebellion and Civil War all in one, 1850-1864

Hēihé 黑河    City in northeast Manchuria (Heilongjiang) formerly known as Aigun

Aìhún   瑷珲 Now called Heihe, formerly called Aigun, site of the signing of the Treaty of Aigun.

Yìshān 奕山 Manchu diplomat who was forced into signing the Treaty of Aigun

Qíshàn 琦善   Manchu diplomat also forced to sign unequal treaties

Lín Zéxú 林则徐   Chinese hero who stood up to the foreign traders and torched their opium

Hǔmén  虎门   Located on "The Bogue" in Guangdong, site where Lin Zexu burned the opium

Guǎngdōng 广东  Southern province in China

Convention of Chuenbi   穿鼻草约  (Chuānbí Cǎoyuē) signed 1841, never ratified.

Ili  伊犁   (Yīlí) Town, valley and river name at the northwest border of Xinjiang - Kazakhstan

Zuǒ Zōngtáng   左宗棠  (1812-1885) Military leader and statesman from Hunan

Li-Lobanov Treaty 中俄密约   (known as the Zhōng É Mìyuē ), signed 1896

Lǐ Hóngzhāng 里鸿章   Co-signer of the Li-Lobanov Treaty), Chinese diplomat and statesman

Liaotung Peninsula  辽东半岛 (Liáodōng Bàndǎo) The tip of peninsular Liaoning Province

Lǚ Dà Zūdì Tiáoyuē 旅大租地条约   Convention for the Lease of the Liaotung Peninsula at Dalian (大连)

Port Arthur Also known as Lüshunkou (旅顺口), Port located at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula

Qīngdǎo 青岛   Scenic city in Shandong, once a German concession

Wēihǎiwèi  威海卫   Another scenic city in Shandong, once a British concession, today known simply as Weihai 威海

If you'd like to brush up on your Russian History, may I recommend an old stalwart of mine:

MARK SCHAUSS, PRESENTER OF THE RUSSIAN RULERS PODCAST

I call it "The CHP of Russian History"

 

Direct download: CHP-181-The_Early_Years_of_Sino-Russian_Relations.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:14pm PST

Many people don't know that the first preaching of Christianity in China pre-dated the Jesuits by more than nine centuries.  We'll take a second cursory look at the Jesuits as part of a bigger story that includes Christianity in China during the Tang and Yuan dynasties.  We'll see that prior to the arrival of Matteo Ricci, there were two other lesser known attempts to grow Christianity in China.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

Āluóběn   阿罗本 Nestorian monk who visited Chang'an in 635 CE

Dàqín Jǐngjiào liúxíng Zhōngguó bēi 大秦景教流行中国碑 "A Monument Commemorating the Propagation of the Dàqín Luminous Religion of China" or "The Story of the Coming of the Religion of Light from the West to China."

Jǐngjiào   景教 Nestorian Christianity

Tiānzhǔjiào   天主教 Roman Catholicism "the religion of the Lord of Heaven"

Dōngzhèngjiào   东正教 Eastern Orthodox “the religion of Eastern Truth”

Jīdūjiào 基督教 Protestantism

Jīdū 基督 Christ

jiào 教 religion or teaching

Xīn Jiào 新教   the New religion

Lǐ Shìmín 李世民 2nd son of Li Yuan, the Tang founder

Táng Tàizōng   唐太宗 Taizong Emperor, formerly known as Li Shimin

Fáng Xuánlíng   房玄龄   Chancellor under Taizong

Zhōu Gōng 周公 Duke of Zhou

Dù Rúhuì   杜如晦 Chancellor under Taizong, colleague of Fang Xuanling

Cháng'ān   长安 Capital of Tang Dynasty China (present day Xian)

Jǐngjìng   景淨 Christian monk who wrote the story of Alopen on the Nestorian Stele

Dàqín 大秦 Rome

Xīān 西安 Capital of Shaanxi province, location of ancient of Chang'an

Jǐngjiào bēi   景教碑 The Nestorian Stele (or Tablet)

bēi 碑 a stele or stone tablet or monument.

Fùpíng County Shaanxi   陕西富平县 Northeast of Xian, the place where the stone came from that the Nestorian Stele was made from. Also the ancestral home of President Xi Jinping.

Bēilín Bówùguǎn   碑林博物馆 The Forest of Monuments Museum in Xian

Xīān Wénchāng Gate   西安文昌门 One of the ancient gates of Xian

Táng Wǔzōng   唐武宗 Tang Emperor from 840-846

Huáng Cháo Uprising   黄巢起义 Uprising lasting 881-884, weakened the Tang Dynasty.

Khanbaliq 汗八里 Capital of Yuan Dynasty China. Present day Beijing

Dàdū   大都 Great Capital...other name for Khanbaliq

Hàn Wǔdì   汉武帝 Western Han emperor from 141-87 BCE

Xiàmén   厦门 Ancient port city in Fujian

Quánzhōu   泉州 Another ancient port city in Fujian

Zhū Yuánzhāng   朱元璋 Ming Dynasty founder, also known as the Hongwu Emperor - reigned 1368-1398

Hóngwǔ Emperor 洪武帝 Zhu Yuanzhang, who came from humble beginnings and founded a dynasty.

Xú Guāngqǐ   徐光启 Also known as Paul Hsu, a colleague of Matteo Ricci

Lǐ Zhīzǎo 李之藻 Along with Xu Guangqi and Yang Tingyun, he was one of the Three Pillars of Catholicism in China.

Yáng Tíngyún  杨廷筠 One of the Three Pillars of Catholicism in China

Dorgan   多尔衮 Prince Regent during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor

Shùnzhì   顺治 1st Qing Emperor to rule over China 1643-1661

Kāngxī   康熙 Successor to Shunzhi, the longest reigning Chinese emperor 1661-1722

Yōngzhèng 雍正 Successor to the Kangxi Emperor

Luō Guànzhōng  罗贯中  Author of the classic novel "Romance of the Three Kingdoms

 

MATT SHEEHAN'S CHINAFORNIA NEWSLETTER - CHECK IT OUT HERE

 

JOHN ZHU'S THREE KINGDOMS PODCAST - Click here and check it out

 

Click here for Laszlo's past episode CHP-098-Ricci, Schall von Bell and Verbiest

 

Direct download: CHP-180-The_Earliest_Years_of_Christianity_in_China.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:40am PST

Thanks to Carole in Virginia for giving me enough of a push to get this episode finally produced.  This might have been one of the first ten topics I came up with when I began writing the original list back in 2010.  The history of silk is really an amazing testament to humankind's ingenuity and the randomness of life since Neolithic times. I hope you enjoy this episode.  It turned out to be a much greater story than I was ever aware of.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

Shén Nóng   神农 The Divine Farmer, god of agriculture and many other things

Qīng Dynasty   清朝   The last imperial dynasty in China - 1644-1911

Dèng Xiǎopíng   邓小平 Chairman of China Bridge Association and great Chinese leader during 20th century

Míng Dynasty   明朝 Second to the last dynasty...1368-1644

Táng   唐朝 Dynasty in China 618-907

Ānhuì   安徽 Province in China

Fújiàn   福建 Province in China

Sòng Dynasty   宋朝   Dynasty in China....960-1279

Yǎngsháo Wenhua 仰韶文化 Yangshao Culture in China..5000 to 3000 BCE more or less

Yángshuò County   阳朔县 One of the great sightseeing centers of China, near Guilin

Zhèngzhōu   郑州   City in Henan

Qīngtaí   清台村 Village in the northwest corner of Zhengzhou on the south bank of the Yellow River

Huāxià   华夏 The collective tribes that made up ancient core Han Chinese civilization

Xià County   夏县 County in south Shanxi on the border with Henan

Shānxī province   山西省 Province in China

Qiánshānyàng 钱山漾 town at the south end of Lake Tai near Húzhōu

Shāng Dynasty   商朝 China's first "official dynasty," lasted from 1600 to 1046 BCE

Huángdì   黄帝 The Yellow Emperor

Xī Líng Shì   西陵氏   The discoverer of silk and the primary wife of the Yellow Emperor

Léi Zǔ   嫘祖 Other name of Xi Ling Shi by which she is more commonly known

Cán Nǎinai   蚕奶奶 The Goddess of Silkworms

Cán 蚕 a silk-worm

Kǒngfūzǐ   孔夫子 Confucius

Shǐ Jì 史记Records of the Grand Historian

Jì  礼记 Book of Rites

nǚgōng 女红 the feminine arts

Sūzhōu   苏州 City in Jiangsu Province

Nánjīng   南京   Capital city of Jiangsu province

Chéngdū   成都   The capital city of Sichuan province

Zhāng Qiān   张骞 Great Western Han Dynasty adventurer, instrumental in getting the Silk Road up and running

Hàn Wǔdì   汉武帝 Great Western Han Dynasty emperor

Wǔyí Mountains   武夷山 Mountains in northern Fujian where some of the best tea in the world comes from

Hétián   和田 Formerly called Khotan...a great trading kingdom in present day Xinjiang

Jìn Dynasty   晋朝 Dynasty in China: 265-420 CE

Suí   隋朝 Dynasty in China from 581-618

Cháng'ān   长安 Present day Xian in Shaanxi Province

Qiánlóng   乾隆 Emperor during the heyday of the Qing Dynasty, 1735-1796

 

Frank Lavin's new World War II book: "Home Front to Battlefront"

Web Site: EXPORT NOW if you're looking to break into the China online market with your product.

Website for SupChina.com ......everything you need to know to stay on top of China news......Only 3 minutes is all it takes (unless you read ALL the articles)

 

Direct download: CHP-179-The_Ancient_History_of_Silk-RMar19.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 10:35am PST

In part two of this series examining the forgotten life of William Mesny, we hear the second half of his story in China. We're mostly using author David Leffman's 2016 book "The Mercenary Mandarin"

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Chéngdū   成都 Capital city of Sichuan

Khampa   康巴 Area in eastern Tibet bordering Sichuan

Yúnnán   云南 Southwestern province of China

Huí   回族 Musilm ethnic minority

Guìlín   桂林 Beautiful city in Guangxi

Lí River  漓江   River running through Guilin

Liǔzhōu   柳州 City in Guangxi

Róngshûi   融水 City near Liuzhou

Róng’ān   融安   City near Liuzhou

Dānzhōu   丹州   City near Liuzhou

Miao   苗族 Known as the Hmong in the US, one of China's ethnic minorities

Yáo   瑶族 one of China's ethnic minorities

Dòng   侗族 one of China's ethnic minorities

Zuǒ Zōngtáng   左宗棠 Successful Qing era general

Guìyáng   贵阳 Capital of Guizhou

Chóngqìng   重庆 Formerly part of Sichuan, now a Municipality

Lánzhōu   兰州   Capital of Gansu

Zhìlǐ   治理 Old province of China that no longer exists

Qīnghǎi   青海 Province in West China

Gānsù   甘肃   Province in West China

Níngxià   宁夏 Province in West-Central China

Shǎolín Temple   少林寺   Famous temple in China

Tàiyuán   太原   Capital of Shanxi

Shānxī   山西 Province in China

Bǎodìng   保定   City in Hebei

Lǐ Hóngzhāng   李鸿章 Chinese military leader and diplomat and signer of more than a couple unequal treaties.

Zhuōzhōu   涿州   City south of Beijing in Hebei

Zhāng Zhīdòng    张之洞 Reforming governor of Shanxi

Xīān   西安   Capital of Shaanxi

Qínlǐng Mountains   秦岭山   Mountain chain in southern Shaanxi

Kūnmíng   昆明   Capital of Yunnan

Dōngjīng   东京   Eastern Capital. Can mean Tokyo or Tungking (N. Vietnam)

Anhui   安徽 Province in Eastern China

Hefei   合肥   Capital of Anhui

Guǎngxī   广西   Province in southern China

Xinjiang   新疆  Province in northwest China

Shaanxi   陕西   Province in north-central China

Huangxing Road   黄兴路 Road in Hankou

 

 

The Mercenary Mandarin - amazon link to the book

Link to Blacksmith Books

Link to one of Mesny's Chinese Miscellany (Vol IV)

Link to John Pomfrets book "The Beautiful Country and the Middle Kingdom"

 

 

 

Direct download: CHP-178-William_Mesny_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:19pm PST

In this first part of a two-part series we examine the forgotten life of William Mesny. Drawing from author David Leffman's 2016 book "The Mercenary Mandarin," Laszlo discusses an unknown character from the bad old days of late Qing Dynasty China. Though he never made it to the history books, he nonetheless witnessed and took part in a lot of it. Through Mesny we can once again wander through some of Imperial China's worst years.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Qīng 清朝 The Qing Dynasty 1644-1911

Bǎinián guóchǐ   百年国耻 China's Century of Humiliation

Lǐ Hóngzhāng   李鸿章  Famous Chinese military man and diplomat

Màishìní Huá-yīng Huìtōng   麦士尼华英会通  "Mesny's Chinese Miscellany"

Sòng 宋朝 The Song Dynasty

Tàipīng Tiāngguó   太平天国 Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Hóng Xiùquán   洪秀全 The head of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Guǎngxī   广西 Province in Southwest China

Húnán   湖南 Province on Central China

Cháng Shèng Jūn   常胜军 The Ever-Victorious Army

Zhìlǐ   治理 Old province of China that no longer exists

Húguǎng   湖广 Hubei - Hunan and surrounding areas

Liǎngguǎng 两广   Guangdong - Guangxi

Wǔhàn   武汉 Capital City of Hubei Province

Zhènjiāng   镇江 City in southwest Jiangsu

Sūzhõu   苏州   City in Jiangsu, called the Venice of China

Bǎoyīng   宝应 County in central Jiangsu

Jiāngsū 江苏 Coastal province in China

Yángzhōu   扬州 City in Jiangsu

Nânjīng   南京   Capital city of Jiangsu

Hànkǒu   汉口 City in Hubei, the "Han" in Wuhan

Wǔchāng   武昌 City in Hubei, the "Wu" of Wuhan

Hànyáng 汉阳 City in Hubei, part of Wuhan

Chóngqìng 重庆 Used to be part of Sichuan, now a municipality

Niǎn Jūn Qǐ   捻军起义 The Nian Rebellion lasted from 1851 – 1868.

Miáo Rebellion   苗民起义 Three different rebellions share this name

Guìzhōu   贵州   Mountainous interior province in West China

Zuǒ Zōngtáng   左宗棠 Famous and very successful general during the Qing

Dungan Revolt 同治回辩 Tóngzhì Huí Biàn   Another in a long line of Muslim wars , this one against Yaqub Beg in the northwest of China.

Xīnjiāng   新疆 Province in northwest China

Zūnyì   遵义 City in Guizhou

Táng Jiǒng   唐炯 Governor of Sichuan and early benefactor of Mesny

Chóng'ān River   崇安河 River in Guizhou where Mesny's bridge stands

Shāndōng   山东 Coastal province in China

Jìnán   济南   Capital city of Shandong

Dīng Bǎozhēn  丁宝桢 Governor of Sichuan Province

Gōng Bǎo Jī Dīng   宫保鸡丁 Kung Pao Chicken

Gōng Bǎo   宫保 Palace Guardian

 

 

Direct download: CHP-177-William_Mesny_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:16pm PST

CHP-176-The History of the Teochew People

In this episode Laszlo explains a little about the "Gagi Nang", the 自己人, known the world over as the Teochew (Chiu Chow or Chaozhou) people. Like the Hakka people, the Teochew's were originally from the Yellow River Valley and migrated to their present location on the Guangdong coast via Fujian province. Their language and culture is unique. Their food and Chaozhou culture is celebrated in more places than Chaozhou and not just by the people from that region. There are Chaozhounese people on every continent except maybe Antarctica. They're a proud group of people with a collective track record that is admirable by any standards of human achievement. The only mentions in this episode were of the Teochew's of South East Asia and the US. There are plenty of other lesser known or unknown histories of Teochew's in Canada, Europe, Mexico, Central and South America and of course Australia and New Zealand. The great 19th century Chinese diaspora is filled with stories, legends and historic events. The Chiu Chow people are a major part of everything that happened. They contributed not only to the society and the economy of their adoptive homelands, they still kept their ties with the eight districts of Chao-Shan.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

 Teochew People 潮州人

Gaginang 自己人 What Teochew's call themselves in their dialect ("Our People")

Hakka People 客家人

Chaozhou   潮州 Mandarin pronunciation

Chiu Chow 潮州   Cantonese pronunciation

Chaoshan   潮汕 The term for the Chaozhou-Shantou-Jieyang region

Shantou   汕头 Port city of the Chaoshan region

Swatow   汕头 Shantou in the Teochew dialect

Jieyang   揭阳 The 3rd city to make up the Chaoshan region

Meizhou   梅州   Homeland of the Hakka people, located in Guangdong

Jin Dynasty 晋朝 Dynasty that ran 265-420 CE

Jürchen Jin dynasty 金朝 The dynasty that replaced the Northern Song 1115-1234

Henan   河南 Province of China

Shanxi   山西   Province of China

Han River 韩江 One of the three rivers of Chaoshan

Huanggang River   黃冈河 One of the three rivers of Chaoshan

Rong River  榕江 One of the three rivers of Chaoshan

Wu Hu  五胡 The Five Barbarian tribes

Han Dynasty  汉朝 Ancient dynasty of China 206 BCE - 220 CE

Xiongnu   匈奴 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Xianbei   鲜卑 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Jie 羯 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Qiang  羌 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia (and Tibet)

Di  氐 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Jiangnan  江南 South of the Yangzi River (Southern China)

Tang dynasty  唐朝 Dynasty of China 618 - 907

Fujian   福建 Southeast coastal province of China

Quanzhou   泉州 City in southern Fujian

Putian   莆田   City in southern Fujian

Yuan dynasty   元朝   Mongol-run Dynasty of China 1271-1368

Guangdong province   广东 Southernmost province of continental China

Wu  沪  The dialect of Shanghai and the surrounding region

Yue  粤 The Cantonese dialect

Xiang   湘   The Hunanese dialect

Gan   赣   The dialect of the Jiangxi region

Hakka   客家   The dialect of the Hakka people

Min   闽   The dialects of Fujian

Min River 闽江   The main river of Fujian

Minbei   闽北 North of the Min River

Minnan  闽南   South of the Min River

Hokkien  福建   Pronunciation of Fujian in the local dialect (and the people of course)

Xiamen  厦门 Major city in south Fujian

Zhangzhou  漳州  Major city in south Fujian

Hoklo 福佬  Cantonese for Fujian people

Fulao 福佬  The Mandarin pronunciation of Hoklo

He Luo 河洛 (also 河老) Another way of writing Hoklo

Fujian ren   福建人 Someone from Fujian

Hoa Kieu 华侨 Overseas Chinese (Vietnamese)

Qin Shihuang  秦始皇 First emperor of China 220 - 210 BCE

Nanhai Commandery  南海郡 The 郡 or commandery located in southern Guangdong

Zhou dynasty  周朝 Ancient dynasty of China 1046 - 256 BCE

Zhao Tuo   赵陀 Former Qin general who set up the Nanyue Kingdom in Southern China and Northern Vietnam

Nanyue Kingdom   南越国 A kingdom that lasted from 204 - 111 BCE

Han Emperor Wu   汉武帝 Han Dynasty emperor whose forces conquered the Nanyue and reigned 141 - 87 BCE

Sui  隋 Dynasty in China that preceded the Tang 581 - 618 CE

Emperor Wen of Sui   隋文帝 Founding emperor of the Sui

Chao Prefecture  潮州 Set up in 590, where Chaozhou got its name

Zhou 州 An ancient name for a prefecture

Chao’an County 潮安县 Set up during the Republic of China

Wenhua  文化   culture

Qianlong emperor 乾隆帝 Qing emperor reigned 1735-1796

Taiping Rebellion   太平天国运动 Violent upheaval in China lasting from 1850-1864

She Youjin 佘有进 Seah Eu Chin 1805 - 1883 - early Singapore Teochew community leader

She   佘 A Chinese surname (rhymes with 蛇)

Yu   余 The Chiense surname Yu......but compare it to the She above.

Liu Song Dynasty 刘宋朝 Dynasty in southern China during the Nanbei Chao 420-479

Nanbei Chao   南北朝 The Southern & Northern Dynasties period

Ngee Ann Kongsi (Yi'an Gongsi) 義安公司 Charitable foundation in Singapore

Chaozhou Bayi Huiguan 潮州八邑会馆 The Singapore Eight Districts Association

Chaoshan cai   潮汕菜 Term used to describe the food of the Chaoshan region

Rougucha 肉骨茶 a kind of a Chaozhou style meat soup

Lushui E   卤水鹅 Fine tasting Chaozhou goose dish....dip it in vinegar...The Ultimate umami!

dongxie   潮州冻蟹 A kind of crab in the shell (of course) eaten cold

Yao Ming   姚明 China basketball great and NBA superstar. Also a major anti-shark's fin soup crusader.

Yulu 鱼露 Nước mắm in Vietnamese, Fish Sauce in English

Shacha Sauce 沙茶醬 made from soybean oil, shallots, dried fish, dried shrimp and a nice kick of chili and garlic. Satay sauce

Chaozhou Guotiao 潮州粿条   hủ tiếu in Vietnamese, often spelled in English "Kway Teow"

Gongfu cha   工夫茶 A kind of tea service and traditional Chaozhou tea custom.

Tieguanyin   铁观音 The preferred tea for Chaozhou style gongfu tea.

Dancong Cha   蚕丛茶 Another kind of tea from the Chaoshan region of Guangdong. Not easy to get.

Chao Ju   潮剧 Chaozhou Opera

Nanxi  南戏 Southern Drama that was popular during the Later Song

Kun Qu  昆曲 Kun opera, the oldest form of Chinese opera

Tan   陈 Teochew for Chen, the #1 most popular Teochew surname

Lim   林 Teochew for Lin, the #2 most popular Teochew surname

Ng 黄 Teochew for Huang, the #3 most popular Teochew surname

Goh 吴 Teochew for Wu, the #4 most popular Teochew surname

Tay 郑 Teochew for Zheng, the #5 most popular Teochew surname

Li 李 Teochew for Li, the #6 most popular Teochew surname

Sir Li Ka-shing   李嘉诚爵士 Featured in CHP episode 13.

Wang Jianlin   王健林 Asia's reigning champion for richest man, founder and chairman of the Dalian Wanda Group.

Guangyuan 广元 Town in northeast Sichuan province

Wu Zetian   武则天 Amazing lady from the Tang dynasty, China's only real true empress

Joseph Lau 劉鑾雄 Boss of Chinese Estates Holdings

Lim Por-yen 林百欣  Lin Baixin... Boss of the Lai Sun Group

Albert Yeung...杨受成 Yang Shoucheng The main guy at the Emperor Group

Vincent Lo... 罗康瑞 Luo Kangrui of Sino Land (who gave us Shanghai's Xintiandi)

Xie Guomin 谢国民 Dhanin Chearavanont - Thailand's richest man and CP Group boss (sorry for mispronouncing his name)

Ma Huateng   马化腾 Pony Ma, founder of Ten Cent (騰訊控股有限公司) who gave us WeChat and QQ

David Tran 陈德 Họ Trần  Legendary founder of the company that gave us Sriracha sauce with the green bottle cap.

Huy Fong Foods   汇丰食品公司 David Tran's company, located in Irwindale, California

Zou ma kan hua   走马看花 To look at the flowers while riding a horse....a very superficial view.

  

Charles Antoine de Rouve and Jerome Scemla directed documentary La Guerre du Thé...Tea Wars

LINK TO WEBSITE

 

 

John Pomfret's new book

Amazon link to "The Beautiful Country and the Middle Kingdom"

 

PLEASE ALSO CHECK OUT:

THE CHINA VINTAGE HOUR

AND

THE CHINESE SAYINGS PODCAST

 

BOTH ARE NEW SHOWS FROM TEACUP MEDIA

Direct download: CHP-176-The_History_of_the_Teochew_People-R18.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 12:08pm PST

CHP-175-Su Dongpo

In this 175th episode Laszlo gives the great Northern Song jack-of-all-literary-trades Su Dongpo the once over. This isn't meant to be a deep dive into the reasons for all his renown in literature, calligraphy and painting. Instead, this is just a "popular Chinese historical" overview of who he was and the times he lived in.  And for those who never heard of him, this is a good intro. In America we have Washington Irving, Mark Twain, Hemingway and so on. In China....Su Shi would be mentioned when rattling off their best of the best. He was definitely a major guy not only in the Song, but in the overall world of Chinese culture as well.  The list of terms from this episode is particularly long this time.  You can see them below in the approximate order of their mention.  If you're interested to check out some of his poetry, here's an amazon link to a book of his poems translated by Burton Watson: Selected Poems of Su T'ung-P'o

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

 Ouyang Xiu 欧阳修 1007-1072 Northern Song statesman, historian, calligrapher, literatus extraordinaire

Wang Xizhi   王羲之 Called arguably the greatest Chinese calligrapher

Zhou   周 1046 BCE - 256 BCE Ancient dynasty of China

Han   汉   206 BCE - 220 CE Ancient dynasty of China

Jin   晋 265-420 Ancient dynasty of China

Sui   隋 581-618 Ancient dynasty of China

Tang 唐 618-907 Ancient dynasty of China

Song   宋 960-1279 Ancient dynasty of China

Kaifeng   开封 Capital of the Northern Song dynasty 960-1127

Northern Song 北宋 960-1127

Huizong   徽宗 The Northern Song emperor who "lost China" to the Jürchens

Su Dongpo   苏东坡 1037 - 1101 Our subject in this episode

Su Shi   苏轼 Su Dongpo's birth name

Tang Song Ba Da Jia   唐宋八大家 "Eight Great Men of Letters of the Tang and Song Dynasty

Han Yu   韩愈 768-824 - Tang essayist and poet. Major influence in development of Chinese literature

Liu Zongyuan 柳宗元 773-819 Tang waster of prose and poetry

Su Xun 苏洵 1009-1066 - Great man of letters and Father of Su Shi and Su Zhe

Su Zhe 苏辙   1039-1112 - Brother of Su Shi, also a great man of letters

Wang Anshi   王安石 1021-1086 - Song statesman and father of far reaching reforms. Also a great literary figure in his day.

Zeng Gong   曾鞏 1019-1083 - Great prose master of the Song

Hangzhou   杭州 Capital of Zhejiang and of dynasties past. Su Dongpo served there twice

Zhejiang   浙江 Province in east China

Meishan   眉山 City south of Chengdu, birthplace of the Three Su's, Su Xun, Su Dongpo and Su Zhe.

Min River 岷江 Yangzi tributary river in Sichuan, famous for the Duijangyan irrigation system

Leshan 乐山 City in Sichuan

Ya'an   雅安 Great tea city near Chengdu in Sichuan

Chengdu   成都 Ancient capital of Shu Kingdom, now capital of Sichuan

jinshi   进士   The highest degree that allowed you to fill the top positions in government

Wang Fu 王弗 1039-1065 - First wife of Su Dongpo

Henan  河南 Province in north China where it all began

doucha   斗茶 "Tea Battles" that were popular during the Song

Wang Runzhi   王闰之 1048-1093 2nd wife of Su Dongpo

Su Di   苏堤 the Su Causeway across West Lake in Hangzhou

Xin Fa   新法 The New Policies championed by the Shenzong Emperor and Wang Anshi

Shenzong    神宗 1048-1085 - Northern Song Emperor and Wang Anshi supporter

Sima Guang   司马光 1019-1086 Conservative Song scholar and official, writer of the Zizhi Tongijan

Luoyang   洛阳 City in Henan and former ancient capital of past dynasties.

Cheng Yi 程颐  One of the pride of Luoyang, Chinese philosopher

Zizhi Tongjian, the "Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance" A monumental historical work covering Chinese history from 403 BCE to 959 CE

Wutai Poem Incident 乌台诗案 In 1079, a poem by Su Shi got him in trouble and exiled fron the capital.

Huangzhou 黄州 Former name of Huanggang, now a district of that city

Hubei   湖北 Central province in China, capital is at Wuhan

Huanggang   黄冈 City just east of Wuhan in Hubei Province

Dongpo 东坡 Eastern slope

Dongpo Jushi 东坡居士 Dongpo, the retired scholar or Buddhist.

Chibi Fu   赤壁赋 Ode to Red Cliffs, famous poem by Su Shi

Hou Chibi Fu   后赤壁赋   The Later Ode to Red Cliffs, famous poem by Su Shi

Nian Nujiao Chibi Huaigu 念奴娇赤壁怀古 Remembering Chibi, Su Shi's third poem in this series about Red Cliffs

Zhuge Liang   诸葛亮 Great Shu-Han strategist during Three Kingdoms Period

Lu Su 鲁肃 Politician and general who worked for Sun Quan

Zhou Yu 周瑜 One of Sun Quan's main generals

Cheng Pu 程普 Another of Sun Quan's main generals

Sun Quan 孙权 Emperor of Eastern Wu, one of the Three Kingdoms

Liu Bei   刘备 Emperor of Shu Han, one of the Three Kingdoms

Cao Cao   曹操 King of Wei, one of the Three Kingdoms

Fu 赋 One of the three main types of Chinese Poetry, like rhymed prose

Ci 词 One of the three main types of Chinese Poetry, like lyric poetry

Han Shi Tie 寒食帖 Su Shi's most famous calligraphic work, now hanging in the National Palace Museum in Taipei

Huang Tingjian   黄庭坚 1045-1105 artist, scholar, official, a great Northern Song Master

Mi Fu 米芾 1051-1107 Great Song painter and calligrapher

Cai Xiang   蔡襄 1012-1067 One of the great calligraphers of the Northern Song

Song Si Jia 宋四家 the Four Great Calligraphers of the Song

Han Shi 寒食 is the holiday that occurs right before Qingming in April

Yan Zhenqing 颜真卿 708-785 Great calligrapher of the Tang and one of the greatest of all time

Zhezong 哲宗 Northern Song emperor, Reigned 1085-1100

Empress Dowager Gao 高太皇后 1032-1093 Empress of Northern Song emperor Yingzong, regent for Zhezong during his minority.

Dongpo Rou 东坡肉 Dongpo Pork

Zuo Zongtang 左宗棠   Hunan-born general from the Qing, the man who brought us General Tso's Chicken

Lou Wai Lou 楼外楼 Not the best restaurant in Hangzhou but one of the most famous. Been around over one hundred fifty years

Ni Zan, the late Yuan-early Ming painter.

Xu Wei, the Ming painter

Yuan Mei, the Qing dynasty scholar and artist.

Yuanyou era 元祐 Conservative era in Emperor Zhezong's reign that lasted 1086 to 1093

Huizhou 惠州 City in Guangdong where Su Dongpo served a stint

Hainan   海南 Island province off the coast of Guangdong

Danzhou   儋州 Coastal city in Hainan just west of Haikou

Haikou   海口 Capital city of Hainan

Dongpo Shuyuan   东坡书院

Wang Zhaoyun   王朝云 1062-1095 - 3rd wife of Su Dongpo

Changzhou   常州 City in Jiangsu

Jiangsu   江苏 Coastal province just north of Zhejiang

Cai Jing   蔡京 Long serving chancellor to Emperor Huizong

Cai Tao 蔡绦 Son of Cai Jing who had the audacity to say something nice about Su Dongpo

Shi 诗 The word meaning all Chinese poetry but also a specific kind as well.

Su Men Si Xueshi 苏门四学士 The Four Scholars at Su Shi's Gate

Zhang Lei   张耒 1054-1114 One of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Chao Buzhi 晁补之 One of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Qin Guan   秦观 1049-1100 - Northern Song writer and poet. Also one of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Jin 金朝 The Jin Dynasty of the Jürchens 1115-1234

 

Direct download: CHP-175-Su_Dongpo.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 2:51pm PST

CHP-174-The Pirate Queen Zheng Yi Sao

In this latest episode Laszlo finally gets around to the oft requested subject of piracy in early 19th century China.  Pirates had been a fact of life going back to the most olden days. Mid to late Qing Dynasty the amount of trade being plied on the China coast attracted pirates like never before.  Zheng Yi Sao ("Zheng Yi's Wife") was a tough woman from the Pearl River Delta who married the most notorious pirate of his day Zheng Yi.  Upon Zheng Yi's death, his widow took control of his massive pirate fleet.  With her adopted son, and later husband Cheung Po Tsai, she controlled what as, at the time, the largest pirate fleet that preyed on coastal dwellers and vessels engaged in trade. She later became an inspiration for many characters that appeared in books, movies, video games and other media.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Zheng Shi 郑氏 Madame Zheng, Widow Zheng

Zheng Yi Sao 郑一嫂 Zheng Yi Sao, wife of Zheng Yi

haidao   海盗 pirate

Zhejiang   浙江 East coast province of China

Guangdong   广东  Southernmost province of continental China

Tây Sơn Rebellion   Major uprising in Vietnam from 1770 to 1802

Binh Dinh Province   South central coastal province in Vietnam

Da Nang   Vietnam's 3rd largest city

Nha Trang   Coastal city in Vietnam

Xishan   西山 West Mountain (Tây Sơn in Vietnamese)

Guangxi   广西 One province over from Guangdong

Shi   石 Common Chinese surname, means stone

Ma 马Another common Chinese surname, means horse

Xu   徐 Common Chinese surname. I always get it mixed up with 许.

Shi Xianggu   石香姑 Zheng Yi Sao's real name

Xinhui   新会 City near Jiangmen

Tanka or Danjia   疍家 The boat dwelling people of south China and Fujian

shuishang ren 水上人 people who live on the water

Zheng Yi   郑一 South Seas pirate who ran the Red Flag Fleet. Married Shi Xianggu

Red Flag Fleet  红旗帮 Hóngqí Bāng.

Cheung Po Tsai  张保仔 Zhang Bâozâi

Jing Hai fen ji  靖海氛记 Charles F. Neumann's "The Pirates who Infested the China Sea from 1807 to 1810.

Jiaqing emperor   嘉庆帝 Qing emperor 1796 - 1820

Daoguang emperor   道光帝 Qing emperor 1820 - 1850

Ming Jiajing Emperor   明嘉靖帝 Ming emperor 1521 - 1567

Lantau 大屿山 Island that is part of the Hong Kong SAR

Cheung Chau  - Changzhou 长洲 Island off the coast of Lantau

Humen  虎门 Located at the mouth of the Pearl River Delta

Chow Yun-fat  周润发 Great Actor who played Sau Feng, one of the Pirate Lords from Disney's P of the C movie Part 3.

Qiongzhou Strait 琼州海峡 Body of water that separates Hainan from Guangdong

 

 

Direct download: CHP-174-The_Pirate_Queen_Zheng_Yi_SaoRev2018Jan.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:35pm PST

CHP-173- The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 3

Laszlo offers up the exciting conclusion to the 3-part series introducing the Tong Wars.  

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

Wanguo Jinyanhui huizhi 万国禁烟会会址 Meeting place of the International Opium Commission

weiji   危机   A crisis

Charlie Boston 李观长 One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Tom Lee  李希龄  Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

Xinhai Revolution   辛亥革命   The event that toppled the Qing Dynasty in 1911.

Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. Directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence.

Chong Pon Sing   The president of the Hip Sings, bumped off by the On Leongs

Yee Toy 余才 A Hip Sing soldier involved in a few of their most daring hits

Gin Gum   Another high ranking On Leong and later right hand man to Tom Lee

Kim Lan Association   金兰公所 A part of the Chee Kung Tong (Hongmen) made up of mostly Hip Sings

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations

Fong Foo Leung   the Hip Sing national president

Chin Jack Lem   An On Leong whose defection to the Hip Sings sparked a Tong War

zhi baobuzhu huo   纸包不住火 An old Chinese saying that says "paper can't wrap a fire"

Zhongguo Huiguan 中国会馆 The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association...

Lee Gee Min  Officer for the On Leong’s

Wong Get 黄傑 A Hip Sing everyman...Used by reforming politicians to rat out the On Leongs and by his fellow Hip Sing tong brothers to make things difficult for the On Leongs.

Frank Moy   head of the Chicago branch of the On Leong’s

Tung On Society 东安会馆 Another society made up mostly of seamen

Jiu Yi Ba  九一八 the Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931.

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

 

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

 

The Tong Wars book home page

 

Article from Signature Magazine that explains the Turf Wars in NY Chinatown .

 

 

 

 

 

Direct download: CHP-173-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_3.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 1:54pm PST

CHP-172-The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 2

In this Part 2 episode the Tong Wars begin in earnest.  The first and second Tong Wars are discussed.  

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

The Tong Wars book home page

Article from Signature Magazine that explains the Turf Wars in NY Chinatown

 

"Wish Lanterns - Young Lives in New China"

Alec Ash - UK Amazon link to Wish Lanterns

 

21st Century China Program - UC San Diego

Link to their Website

Link to the China 21 Podcast

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Lung Kin was a Hip Sing member who was the first to get shot in the First Tong War

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

Gong Wing Chung The On Leong soldier charged with Lung Kin's murder

Sin Cue An On Leong, first a suspect in a 1900 murder and later a victim of a Hip Sing hit to prevent him from testifying against Mock Duck

Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. Directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence.

Tom Lee  李希龄  Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Sue Sing   a Hip Sing charged with the murder of Ah Fee, got sentenced to life in the Sing Sing Correctional Facility

Lee Sing An On Leong highbinder from Dedham, Massachusetts. Tried to bump off Mock Duck in 1904.

Zhongguo Huiguan 中国会馆 The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association

Charlie Boston 李观长 One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Chu Gong 赵昂 High ranking On Leong officer

Gin Gum   Another high ranking On Leong and later right hand man to Tom Lee

Hop Lee A Hip Sing laundryman brutally killed by the On Leongs in a retaliation murder.

Shah Kai-fu 夏偕复The Chinese Consul based in the US.

mo mentai, mo mentai 没问题,没问题 Cantonese for no problem, no problem

boo-how-doy / futou zai 斧头仔 Term was used to describe hatchet men contracted from out of town. Also another name for a highbinder.

Leon Ling Charged with the murder of Bow Kum but escaped and was never found.

Chu Gain Proprietor of The Port Arthur Restaurant who was carrying on with Bow Kum at the time of her murder.

Lung Kong Tin Yee Gong Shaw / Longgang Qinyi Gongsuo 龙岗亲义公所Early name of the Four Brothers Society

See Sing Tong / The Sixing Tang 四姓堂 The Four Surnames Society

Sixing 四姓Four surnames.

Lau / Liu 刘 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Kwan / Guan 关 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Cheung / Zhang 张 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Chu / Zhao 赵 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations


Bow Kum 包金(?) A China-born consort whose murder in 1909 sparked the Second Tong War between the On Leongs and the Four Brothers Society. 

Lau Tong Four Brothers member charged with the murder of Bow Kum

Lau Shong Four Brothers member charged with the murder of Bow Kum

Gun Kee Four Brothers member shot and wounded in front of On Leong headquarters by a cousin of Tom Lee.


Ah Hoon   An On Leong who was also a Four Brothers member. A well known comedian in his day. Shot and killed in 1909. 

fan tan 番摊 The game of games for Chinatown gamblers...a game of skill and guessing. Also called Chinese Roulette.

pi-gow 牌九 A Chinese domino-based game of chance

Direct download: CHP-172-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_2.1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:30pm PST

CHP-171-The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 1

In this long awaited and oft requested episode Laszlo explains about the Tong Wars of New York's Chinatown. With the help of Scott Seligman's latest book we go back to late 19th - early 20th century America and focus on New York's Chinatown.  These were terribly unpleasant days for most citizens of Chinese ancestry and especially for those immigrants who either had not begun the process or lived in the shadows illegally. The Chinese Exclusion Laws tarred these citizens like no other immigrant group in US history. The Tong Wars didn't happen because of these laws but they were certainly part of the story.  With everything Chinese-Americans have done to make America great over the past century it's interesting to look back at another time when the ordinary law abiding Chinese and the bloodiest tong soldier were equally reviled in society that was loath to accept them. The book is called "Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown" by Scott D. Seligman.

Terms from this Episode

Qing Chao monian 清朝末年The last years of the Qing Dynasty

Mao Zedong 毛泽东   Chairman Mao

Shaoshan 韶山   Birthplace of Chairman Mao, in Hunan

Toisan   台山 City in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Hoiping   开平 Another city in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Sun-wui   新会 Another city in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Wong Chin Foo   王清福 First to use the term Chinese American. His life was featured in CHP episode 136.

Wo Kee Early Chinatown Merchant also known as Wong Ah Chung

Wong Ah Chung Real name (maybe) of the "pre-Tom Lee" Chinatown personality known as Wo Kee

Wung Ah Ling 李希 (Tom Lee) Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Loon Yee Tong 联谊堂 Cantonese for the Lianyi Tang a.k.a. Chee Kung Tong (致公堂) Society that went back to the Qing dynasty///also known as The Chinese Masons and The Hongmen

Lianyi Tang   联谊堂 Mandarin pronunciation of the Loon Yee Tong

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations

Lee Sing 利胜 Chinatown merchant on Pell who publicly assaulted Tom Lee and got away with it

fan tan 番摊 The game of games for Chinatown gamblers...a game of skill and guessing. Also called Chinese Roulette.

pi-gow 牌九 A Chinese domino-based game of chance

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

An Liang Tang   安良堂 Mandarin pronunciation of the On Leong Tong

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

Xie Sheng Tang   协勝堂 Hip Sing in Mandarin

Lee Toy   李彩 Tom Lee's nephew and chief tough guy in the On Leongs

Lee Quon Jung 李观长 a.k.a. Charlie Boston One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Yuet Sing Another wealthy On Leong merchant in Chinatown 

Wong Get 黄傑 A Hip Sing everyman...Used by reforming politicians to rat out the On Leongs and by his fellow Hip Sing tong brothers to make things difficult for the On Leongs.

Mai De a.k.a. Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. A slippery as an eel and hard to pin down by the authorities...directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence

Lung Kin was a Hip Sing member who was the first to get shot in the First Tong War

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

 

The Tong Wars book home page

 

"Wish Lanterns - Young Lives in New China"

Alec Ash - UK Amazon link to Wish Lanterns

 

supchina.com - New Home of the great Sinica Podcast and a wonderful place to stay in daily touch with what's up in China.

 

Direct download: CHP-171-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_1R.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:14am PST

Laszlo finishes up the story of the Yuan Dynasty, founded in 1271.  The parts of China not yet conquered were done in by 1276 and the last holdouts gone by 1279.  But the Great Yuan didn't last long.  This episode takes a nice little overview of the dynasty, its slow demise and the legacy they left.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty

Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan

Golden Horde  金帐汗国   Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.

Arigh Böke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai

Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan

Zhao   赵   The surname of the Song dynasty ruling family

Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire

Zhengding   正定 A place adjacent to Shijiazhuang, site of Kublai Khan's mother's appanage.

Shijiazhuang   石家庄 Capital of Hebei Province

Hebei   河北 Province in northern China

Zhongtong Era   中统 Era during the Yuan 1260-1264

Zhiyuan Era 至元 Era during the Yuan 1264-1294

Jin Dynasty  金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda

Haiyun Chan Shi 海运禅师 Buddhist advisor to Kublai Khan

Liu Bingzhong   刘秉忠 Advisor to Kublai Khan on all matters architectural, feng shui and other things

Khitans   契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125

Kaiping 开平 Original name of Shangdu

Shangdu   上都 Known popularly as Xanadu, later became Kublai's summer palace

Chengde   承德 Better known in old history books as Jehol or Rehe, city northwest of Beijing

Hülegü 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui

Dadu  大都 Kublai Khan capital, also known as Khanbaliq, City of the Khan's, located in present day Beijing

Zhu Yuanzhang   朱元璋 Ming Dynasty founder

Karakorum  喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260, originally built by Ogedai Khan

Shandong   山东 Coastal province in the north, famous for a million things including Confucius

Li Tan 李璮 Loyal Yuan official up in Shandong who later led a rebellion against Mongol rule in China.

Shi Tianze   石天泽 One of Kublai Khan's most loyal and successful Han Chinese generals

Duke of Zhou   周公 Son of the Zhou Dynasty founder King Wen, brother to King Wu

Taizong   太宗 Co-founder of the Tang Dynasty, also known as Li Shimin

Han Wudi   汉武帝 Great conquering Han Dynasty emperor

Liu Bei   刘备 Mighty hero during the Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period. Founder of the Shu Han State.

Lantau Island   大屿山 Hong Kong's largest island, the international airport is located there

Zhao Kuangyin   赵匡胤 Song dynasty founder

Lizong   理宗   Southern Song emperor 1224-1264 Not a terribly good one.

Emperor Yang of the Sui   隋炀帝 Son of Sui Dynasty founder and final emperor of the Sui. Did some good and some bad. Had a lot of concubines

Empress Dowager Xie

Duzong emperor 度宗 Southern Song emperor from 1264 to 1274

Jia Sidao   贾似道 Southern Song chancellor

Aju  阿术 General and high ranking official during the Yuan. Grandson of Subotei

Subotei  速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.

Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.

Bayan of the Baarin 伯颜   Kublai's greatest general

Han Jiang   汉江 Tributary of the Yangzi flows from Shaanxi to Hubei

Hanshui   汉水 Another name for the Han JIang

Hubei ren   湖北人 Someone from Hubei

Wuchang   武昌 The city that makes up the Wu in Wuhan

Hankou   汉口 The city that makes the Han in Wuhan

Hanyang   汉阳 The third city of the Wuhan metropolitan area

Nanjing   南京 Ming Dynasty capital, also known as the ancient city of Jiankang

Jiankang   建康 Ancient name for Nanjing

Qiantang River   钱塘江   the southern terminus of the Grand Canal, flowed through Hangzhou

Xiangyang   襄阳 City in Hubei opposite the Han Shui from Fancheng

Fancheng  樊城   City in Hubei opposite the Han Shui from Xiangyang

Xiangfan   襄樊 The twin cities of Xiangyang and Fancheng

Hui Hui Pao   回回炮 "Muslim trebuchet"

Cai Jing   蔡京 Huizong's main official, great calligrapher, not terribly popular in his last years

Emperor Gong  恭帝  Southern Song emperor from 1274 to 1276

Changzhou   常州   City in Jiangsu who felt the wrath of the Khan

Huizong 徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song

Duanzong 端宗   Second to the last Southern Song emperor, died age 8

Lu Xiufu   陆秀夫   Official and Military man who served the Song dynasty till the last

Zhao Bing   赵昺   Last emperor of the Southern Song, also known as Huaizong

Huaizong   怀宗   Last Song emperor, also known as Zhao Bing

Hubilie 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.

Yunnan   云南   Southwestern province in China

Empress Chabi 察必皇后   favorite wife of Kublai Khan

Zhenjin   真金   Son of Kublai Khan, died before he succeeded his father as emperor

Shizu   世祖   Posthumous temple name of Kublai Khan

Temür Khan 完泽笃汗 Son of Zhenjin, later became the Chengzong emperor

Chengzong emperor   成宗   Succeeded Kublai Khan as Yuan Emperor

Külüg Khan  曲律汗 Also known as the Wuzong emperor

Wuzong emperor  武宗   Yuan emperor 1307-1311

Buyantu Khan   普颜笃汗 Also known as the Renzong Emperor

Renzong emperor 仁宗 Yuan Emperor 1311-1320, champion of Confucianists.

Zhu Xi   朱熹 Great Chinese philosopher, father of Neo-Confucianism

Si Shu 四书 the Four Books

The Lunyu   论语 The Analects

Mengzi   孟子 The Mencius

Daxue   大学 The Great Learning

Zhongyong  中庸 The Doctrine of the Mean

I Ching   易经 The Book of Changes. People swear by it.

Yingzong emperor   英宗   Yuan Dynasty emperor 1320-1323

Temuder   铁木迭儿 Yuan grand councillar during Yingzong

Taiding Emperor 泰定帝 Yuan emperor 1323-1328

Liangdu zhi zhan   两都之战   War of the Two Capitals

Toghon Temür 妥懽帖睦尔Mongolian name of Yuan emperor Shun

Emperor Shun   顺帝 Yuan emperor

Shun  舜  Last of the mythical Five Emperors, lived around 2200 BC

Yu the Great   大禹 Founder of the Xia Dynasty

Poyang Hu zhizhan   鄱阳湖之战 the Battle of Poyang Lake

Hongwu Emperor   洪武帝 Era name chosen by Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming dynasty

Liu Bang   刘邦 A.K.A. Han Gaozu, founder of the Han Dynasty

Longquan   龙泉 Ancient site near Lishui where some of the best porcelain ware in China was fired.

Lishui   丽水 City in southern Zhejiang

Jingdezhen   景德镇   The historic porcelain capital of China.

Zheng He   郑和 The Yongle Emperor's loyal admiral who led seven voyages to the west that went as far as the east coast of Africa

Wu Cheng 吴澄   Great Yuan dynasty scholar-official and student of Zhu Xi's philosophy

Guo Shoujing 郭守敬   Great Yuan dynasty scholar, scientist, engineer. The "Tycho Brahe of China"

Zhao Mengfu   赵孟頫   Great Yuan era painter, descended from the Song royal family, married to Guan Daosheng.  

Guan Daosheng   管道昇   Called "China's greatest female painter". Married to Zhao Mengfu...an amazing couple in their day

Liu Guandao   刘贯道   Another great Yuan dynasty painter

  

Alec Ash's new book: Wish Lanterns: Young Lives in New China

 

Barbarians at the Gate Podcast: Get it H E R E at Jeremiah's Granite Studio page.

 

David Moser's "A Billion Voices: China's Search for a Common Language"

 

And check out Sixth Tone at http://www.sixthtone.com/

 

Direct download: CHP-170-The_Mongol_Yuan_Dynasty_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:20am PST

CHP-169-The Mongol Yuan Dynasty Part 1

In this long overdue episode with a deceiving title we don't actually get around to the Yuan Dynasty.  However a nice handy and confusing overview tracing the rise of the Mongol nation is presented which includes a bio on Genghis Khan.  We'll get to rise of Kublai Khan this time and look at the Yuan Dynasty next episode.  

 

Terms from this Episode

numero ciento sesenta y nueve Number 169

Qin Shihuang 秦始皇 Qin Dynasty founder

Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty

Parthians 帕提亚  Iranian nomadic people

Scythians   斯基泰人 Iranian nomadic people

Yuezhi 月氏 Originally from Xinjiang and Gansu, defeated by the Xiongnu

Goths 哥特 West central Asian power, the scourge of the Roman Empire

Magyars   马扎儿人 West central Asian power. Today they are known as Hungarians.

Huns 匈奴 More from the western part of the steppe, often confused with Xiongnu

Xiongnu 匈奴 Often called Huns, they were an early northern tribe who kept invading China

Slavs   斯拉夫人 People from central Europe and the West Asian steppe

Xianbei 鲜卑   So-called "proto-Mongols" who lived around the Qin and Han dynasties and founded the Northern Wei.

Shatuo Turks  沙陀突厥  Power in north China late 9th and 10th century. Founded several short-lived dynasties in the north of China.

Khitans 契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125

Tatars 鞑靼人 Mongol tribe defeated by Genghis Khan who later moved westward towards Russia and Europe

Kazakhs   哈萨克人 North-Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

Kyrgyz  吉尔吉斯  Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kyrgyzstan

Uighurs   维吾尔人   Turkic people who today mostly live in Xinjiang

The Hakkas 客家人 The Hakka People

Fujian 福建   Province on the east coast of China

Huizong   徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song

Aguda 阿骨打 Also known as Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jin Dynasty

Wuqimai 吴乞买 Aguda's brother, second emperor of the Jin

Kaifeng 开封 Capital of the Northern Song Dynasty

Jin Dynasty  金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda

Zhao Gou   赵构 Escaped Zhao royal family member, launched Southern Song

Gaozong 高宗 First emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty

Lin'an 临安 Southern Song capital, present day Hangzhou

Merkits  蔑儿乞人 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Keraits  怯烈亦 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongüts  汪古部 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongirats  One of many tribes of the Mongols

Naimans 乃蛮 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Temüjin 铁木真 Genghis Khan's name

Dobun Known as Dobun the Clever, married to Alan the Fair, early ancestors of Temujin

Ah-Lan the Fair married to Dobun, early ancestors of Temujin

Khaidu 海都 c. 1040-1100 Great-grandfather of Khabul Khan

Khabul Khan  合不勒  Early great khan and great -grandfather of Genghis Khan

Yesugei the Brave 孛儿只斤Ÿ也速该 Father of Genghis Khan

Yuanchao Mi Shi 元朝秘史 The Secret History of the Mongols

Börte 孛儿帖 Wife of Temüjin and later Grand Empress of the Mongol Empire

Ulaan Bator 乌兰巴托 Capital of Mongolia

Jochi 术赤 Oldest son of Börte and maybe Genghis Khan

Golden Horde 金帐汗国  Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.

Xinjiang   新疆 Northwest autonomous region in China

Mongol Yasa (Jasagh)   A Mongol Codified law introduced by Genghis Khan

Khuriltai 忽里勒台   A Mongol congress of all elders and leaders

Kara Khitai 喀喇契丹 Also known as the Western Liao 1124-1218

Xixia  西夏 The Western Xia, an empire established by the Tanguts

Khwarizmian Empire 花剌子模王国 Lasted 1077-1231. Khwarazmia covered All of Iran and parts of Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan.

Batu 拔都 Founder of Golden Horde, son of Jochi, grandson of Genghis Khan

Chaghadai 蔡合台 Second son of Genghis Khan, founder of Khanate of Chaghadai

Khanate of Chaghadai 蔡合台汗国 Covered most of Central Asia

Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire

Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan

Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan

Kublai 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.

Hulagu 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui

Arigh Boke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai

Subotei 速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.

Dzungaria 准噶尔 Northern half of Xinjiang with Tianshan Mountains south and the Altai north.

Karakorum 喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260

Guyuk 贵由 Eldest son of Ogedai Khan, reigned only two years as the 3rd Great Khan

Mamluks 马木留克 Originally slave soldiers, they were a powerful "caste" of warriors who operated from the 9th to 19th centuries. Not to be messed with.

Il-khanate 伊儿汗国  The southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire. Ruled by Hülagü's branch of the family - centered around Iran

Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.

Owen Lattimore 欧文Ÿ拉铁摩尔 American scholar and Central Asian specialist

 

Isaac Meyer:  History of Japan Podcast

https://historyofjapan.wordpress.com/

 

Nina Xiang: "China Money Network"

http://www.chinamoneynetwork.com/

 

Direct download: CHP-169-The_Mongol_Yuan_Dynasty_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:10pm PST

CHP-168-Zhou Enlai Part 8

In this bonus one hour plus episode we look at the last six years of Zhou Enlai's life. It was a bittersweet end for Premier Zhou.  In between doing great things for China and guiding the country's general well-being he was forced to play a central role in some of the worst internecine politics in CCP history.  

Terms from this episode

Sun Weishi   孙维世 Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao's adopted daughter

Jiang Qing   江青   Wife of Mao Zedong, Gang of Fouyr leader

Lin Biao   林彪   Revolutionary hero, great general, Mao chosen successor

Chen Yi   陈毅   Another great military leader, later foreign minister

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   State Chairman (title changed to president in 1982), main target of Cultural Revolution

Chen Boda   陈伯达 Former secretary, speechwriter to Mao

Zhang Chunqiao   张春桥 Political theoretician, later member of the Gang of Four

Yao Wenyuan   姚文元 Prominent writer, critic...wrote the initial critique of Wu Han's play that kicked off the Cultural Revolution

Lushan   庐山 Scenic spot in northern Jiangxi, site of many historic meetings

Poyang Lake   鄱阳湖   China's largest freshwater lake

Jiangxi Province   江西 Province in eastern China

Xian Incident   西安事变   October 12, 1936 kidnapping of Chiang Kai-shek

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀   Great military leader, destroyed by Mao at Lushan in 1959 due to criticism of the Great Leap Forward

Zhuang Zedong   庄则栋   One of China's greatest table tennis champions

Wu Faxian   吴法宪   Former Air Force commander, staunch Lin Biao supporter

Ye Qun   叶群 Wife of Lin Biao

Lin Liguo   林立果   Son of Lin Biao, main planner of the attempted coup of Lin Biao

Beidaihe   北戴河   Beach resort near Qinhuangdao, Hebei province, popularly used as a Party retreat for informal meetings

Shanhaiguan   山海关 Historic district near to Beidaihe and Qinhuangdao

"Tian yao xia yu, niang yao jia ren, wufa keshe, you ta qu ba!"   天要下雨,娘要嫁人,无法可设,由他去吧   the heavens must rain and a woman wants to be wed....nothing can be done about this....let him go."

Zunyi Conference   遵义会议 Historic CCP conference in January 1935 in which Mao and Bo Gu fought for supremacy

Zhongnanhai   中南海   Government leadership compound adjacent to the Forbidden City

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超 Wife of Zhou Enlai, later chairperson of the CPPCC

Wumao's   五毛党   People in the Party's employ responsible for flooding the internet with pro-Party comments in an effort to sway public opinion.

Wang Hairong   王海容 Mao's grand niece and later vice minister of the Foreign Ministry

Nancy Tang Wensheng   唐文生 Mao's English interpreter

Wang Hongwen   王洪文 Young, unknown Shanghai radical hand picked by Mao to be his successor

Xinjian County Tractor Factory   新建县拖拉机厂 Factory outside Nanchang where Deng Xiaoping was sent to work after his first political purge ion 1969

Nanchang   南昌 Capital of Jiangxi province

Pi Lin Pi Kong   批林批孔运动 The Criticize Lin Biao, Criticize Confucius Campaign

Ye Jianying   叶剑英 Great PLA general, great leader, rose to the occasion at several key moments in China history

Luo Ruiqing   罗瑞卿   Popular general, early victim of the Cultural Revolution

Mao Yuanxin   毛远新   Mao's nephew, son of his younger brother Mao Zemin

Sige Xiandaihua   四个现代化   The Four Modernizations

Hua Guofeng   华国锋 named as acting Premier to replace Zhou, later Party Chairman

Zhu De   朱德 PLA founder, great general and comrade of Mao

Tangshan   唐山   City in Hebei, just east of Beijing, epicenter of the great earthquake of 1976

Li Xiannian   李先念   Great military and political leader, later President of Chian 1983-88

Wang Dongxing   汪东兴 Mao's bodyguard during the Cultural Revolution years. Commander of the 8341 Special Regiment

Gaige kaifang   改革开放 The policy of reform and opening up to the outside world.

Direct download: CHP-168-Zhou_Enlai_Part_8.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 3:36pm PST

CHP-167-Zhou Enlai Part 7

In this longer than expected seventh episode of the series the Cultural Revolution gets underway, something that Zhou will have to deal with until his dying day.  Aside from this, China's illustrious premier also has his hands full with a thousand other responsibilities, both foreign and domestic. 

 

Terms from this Episode:

Zhou Enlai   周恩来   China's beloved premier and statesman

Huai'an 淮安 City in Jiangsu Province, birthplace of Zhou Enlai

Jiangsu   江苏   Rich coastal province in China

Nankai Middle School 天津南开中学   Famed school where Zhou attended

Tianjin   天津   Municipality just east of Beijing

Whampoa Military Academy   中华民国陆军军官学校   Military academy located in Guangzhou

Jinggangshan   井冈山 Soviet base set up by Mao in the mountains of Jiangxi

Zhu De   朱德   PLA founder and legendary general

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   Great Chinese leader, persecuted by Mao during Cultural Revolution

Deng Xiaoping   邓小平 China's supreme leader in the 1980's

Yang Shangkun   杨尚昆   Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Peng Zhen   彭真 Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀   Great military hero of the PRC, former defense minister

Guiyang   贵阳   Capital of Guizhou Province

Guizhou   贵州   Interior province of China

Hebei   河北 Province in northern China

geming lao qu   革命老区 Revolutionary areas loyal to the CCP going back to the 2nd Sino-Japanese War

Boyan   伯延 A town near Wu'an (武安) in southern Hebei

Zhou Enlai de Sige Zhouye   周恩来的四个昼夜 Movie called "The Story of Zhou Enlai"

Wang Tiecheng   王铁成   Chinese actor famous for his portrayals of Zhou Enlai

Liu Bocheng   刘伯承   Great PLA general who worked closely with Deng Xiaoping

cunmin   村民   village people

Gu Mu   谷牧 1914-2009, great revolutionary, politician, vice-premier

Lin Biao   林彪 Great military hero of the PRC, former defense minister, later rabble rouser

Xinjiang 新疆   Autonomous region in China's northwest

lao gege   老哥哥   Old buddy

Deng Jiaxian 邓稼先   The father of China's nuclear program. Great nuclear physicist

Li Siguang   李四光 Great Chinese scientist, father of China's geomechanics program

Qian Sanqiang   钱三强 Great nuclear physicist

Zhongnanhai   中南海   China's top leadership compound adjacent to the Forbidden City

Luóbùpō  罗布破 Lop Nor in Xinjiang province

He Long   贺龙 Great PLA general

Ngo Dinh Diem 吴廷琰 President of South Vietnam 1955-1963

Yunnan   云南   Province in southwest China

Chen Yi   陈毅   Great Chinese leader, general, statesman, football fanatic

Sanxian jianshe   三线建设 The Third Front Movement

Qinghai   青海   Province in western China

Ningxia   宁夏   Autonomous region in the north of China

Sichuan   四川   Province in China also known as Szechwan

Gansu   甘肃    Province in western China

Chen Yun   陈云 Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Bo Yibo   薄一波   Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Li Fuchun   李富春 Leader and statesman in China, handled the planning of China's economy.

chi chuan yong   吃穿用 "Eat, Wear, Use"

biyaopin   必要品 Necessities of Life

riyongpin   日用品   Daily use items

Dongfang Hong   东方红   The East is Red

Jiang Qing   江青   Mao's last wife, among many other things, all negative.

Wu Han   吴晗   Ming dynasty expert, Beijing vice-mayor

Yao Wenyuan   姚文元   One of the Gang of Four

Wenhui Bao   文汇报   The Wenhui Bao, a Shanghai newspaper

Wuhan   武汉   City in Hubei on the Yangzi consisting of the cities of Hankou, Wuchang and Hanyang

Hangzhou   杭州   Capital of Zhejiang province

Zhong Fa   中发   A Central Directive, like an executive order

Luo Ruiqing  罗瑞卿   PLA great and later target of the Cultural Revolution

Ye Qun   叶群   PLA colonel and wife of Lin Biao

Xiao Xiangrong   肖向荣 Whampoa Military Academy grad, old revolutionary, Luo Ruiqing ally.

Yangzi   扬子江   The Yangtse River

Pao da siling bu   炮打司令部   Bombard the headquarters (Mao's first Big character poster)

Tan Zhenlin   谭震林 Another PLA great

Xu Xiangqian   徐向前 Another PLA great

Wang Guangmei   王光美   Wife of Liu Shaoqi

Song Qingling   宋庆龄   Wife of Sun Yat-sen, later a stateswoman of the PRC

Sun Weishi   孙维世 Adopted daughter of Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao

Sun Bingwen   孙炳文   Early CCP martyr, father of Sun Weishi

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超   Wife of Zhou Enlai, among many other things

You Tube link to The Zhou Enlai Story movie

Direct download: CHP-167-Zhou_Enlai_Part_7.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:47am PST

CHP-166-Zhou Enlai Part 6

More Zhou Enlai again. This time we look at the second half of the 1950's. Zhou was as busy as ever, setting up the government, handling foreign relations and dealing with Chairman Mao. This episode will see Zhou during the Gao Gang Affair, Hundred Flowers, Anti-Rightist, San Fan and Wu Fan Campaigns, Land Reform, rapid agricultural collectivization and the disastrous Great Leap Forward.

Terms from this episode

Gao Gang 高岗 Senior CCP leader who fell victim of the first high-level purge in PRC history

Shaanxi 陕西   Ancient province where Xian is the capital. Next door to Shanxi

Yan'an   延安   Revolutionary CCP base from 1935-1947

Wang Ming   王明 29 Bolsheviks leader who challenged Mao and lost

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀 Legendary PLA leader and old comrade of Mao

Chen Yun   陈云   Old revolutionary chiefly in charge of China's economy

Li Fuchun   李富春   Old comrade of Zhou's from Paris, great revolutionary, Vice premier

Lushunkou   旅顺口 Port Arthur in Liaoning Province

Liaoning   辽宁 One of the three provinces of Manchuria

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   Party legend and sometimes rival of Chairman Mao

Hangzhou   杭州 City in Zhejiang, former capital of the Southern Song

Zhang Zuolin   张作霖   Warlord of Manchuria in the 1920's

Rao Shushi   饶漱石 Gao Gang accomplice in the Gao Gang Affair

Gao Rao Fan Dang Lianmeng 高饶反党联盟 The Gao-Rao Anti-Party Alliance

San Fan Campaign   三反运动 The 3 Anti's Campaign

Wu Fan Campaign   五反运动 The 5 Anti's Campaign

Tanwu he langfei shi jidade fanzui 贪污和浪费是极大的犯罪     Corruption and Waste were the biggest crimes

zhishifenzi   知识分子   Intellectuals

zibenzhuyizhe   资本主义者   Capitalists

Zhongguo Minhang   中国民航   CAAC The old China national airline before it was broken up

Chen Yi   陈毅   PLA legend, soccer fanatic, close comrade of Mao's and later Shanghai mayor and China foreign minister (after Zhou stepped down)

jus sanguinis This is a Latin word meaning "right of blood"

Zhongnanhai   中南海   Compound adjascent to the Forbidden City where China's leaders reside.

Bo Yibo   薄一波   Old revolutionary from Shanxi in charge of finance and the economy with Chen Yun

Li Xiannian   李先念 CCP legend who played a major role in the 80's with Deng Xiaoping

zili gengsheng   自力更生   Self-reliance

Ren duo hao ban shi   人多好办事   When you have a lot of people, things are easy to do

Nanning   南宁   Capital city in Guangxi province

Chengdu    成都 Capital city in Sichuan

Lushan    庐山   Sacred mountain and site of a famous resort in Jiangxi province

 

Direct download: CHP-166-Zhou_Enlai_Part_6.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 9:10am PST

CHP-165-Zhou Enlai Part 5

Laszlo returns after one of the longest breaks ever in the history of the CHP.  Part 5 this time.  The PRC is founded and Premier/ForeignMinister Zhou Enlai has his work cut out for him.  In this episode the focus is on the Korean War and the Geneva Conference. Zhou already enjoyed some degree of international respect from those he had come to know during his Shanghai and Chongqing years.  By 1954 he had established himself as a respected tour de force on the world stage and earned begrudging admiration from those who refused to recognize the country for which he was head of state.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超   Wife of Zhou Enlai and CPPCC Chairwoman 1983-1988

Zhongnanhai   中南海 Compound adjacent to the Forbidden City that houses the top Party leadership

Juxiang Shuwu 菊香书屋 Zhou's first dwelling in Zhongnanhai and later taken over by Mao as his primary office and residence.

Yingtai 瀛台   Island located in the center of South Lake...later the residence of Deng Xiaoping

Empress Dowager Cixi 慈禧太后 Top decision maker in China from 1861 to 1908

Guangxu Emperor   光绪帝 Qing emperor who began the Hundred Days of Reform and got locked up by the Empress Dowager for his troubles.

Xihuating   西花厅   Zhou's residence after Mao took over the Juxiang Shuwu.

Prince Chun 醇亲王 Qing dynasty statesman and father to the Guangxu Emperor and grandfather to Puyi...

Puyi   溥仪 The Xuantong Emperor, a.k.a. The Last Emperor

Chongqing   重庆 Wartime capital of China during WWII

Zhou Enshou   周恩寿 Younger brother of Zhou Enlai

didi   弟弟 younger brother

butie   补贴 a subsidy

Sun Weishi   孙维世 Adopted daughter of Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao

Li Peng   李鹏 Adopted sin of Zhou and Deng Yingchao and Premier of China1987-1998

Huai'an 淮安 Birthplace of Zhou Enlai

Jiangsu   江苏 Province where Huai-an was located.

Guowuyuan   国务院 The State Council

Zhengwuyuan   政务院 Former name of the State Council

Chen Yi   陈毅   Immortal military leader, foreign minister and hardcore soccer fan

Wenhui Bao   文汇报 The Wenhui Daily, a Shanghai newspaper

Pu Shouchang   浦寿昌   Served as Zhou Enlai's secretary from 1954-1965

Zongli Yamen   总理衙门 The old Qing dynasty foreign ministry

Wang Jiaxiang   王稼祥 Vice foreign minister

Li Kenong   李克农   Vice foreign minister

Zhang Hanfu   章汉夫   Vice foreign minister

Wang Bingnan   王炳南 Key foreign ministry leader

Qiao Guanhua   乔冠华   Key foreign ministry leader

Chen Jiakang   陈嘉康   Key foreign ministry leader

Ke Bainian   柯柏年   Key foreign ministry leader

Gong Peng   龚澎   Key foreign ministry leader

Huang Hua   黄华   Key foreign ministry leader

Lüshun   旅顺口 Located in the tip of the Liaodong peninsula, formerly known as Port Arthur

Dalian   大连 Port city in Liaoning province

xijie   细节 details

Lin Biao   林彪 Marshal and military hero until he tried to overthrow Mao in 1971

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀 Great military leader and later victim of the Great Leap Forward

Yalu River   鸭绿江 The river dividing North Korea and China.

Zhongguo Renmin Zhìyuànjūn 中国人民志愿军 The China People's Volunteer Army

Léi Yīngfū the Luòyáng Cáizǐ  雷应付, 洛阳才子 Assisted Kimn Il Sung during the Korean War. Mao called him later the Literary Genius from Luoyang

Lǐ Chéngwǎn李承晚 1st president of South Korea Syngman Rhee

Guoqing   国庆 National Day

Zhongguo laobaixing   中国老百姓 The Chinese People

Kàng Mei Yúan Cháo Zhànzhēng   抗美援朝战争 The resist America and defend Korea War (What China calls The Korean War).

Kàng Mei Yúan Cháo   抗美援朝 resist America and defend Korea.

Zhong Mei Guanxi   中美关系  China-US Relations

Yang Kaihui   杨开慧 Mao's 1st wife (if you don't include the arranged marriage he never recognized)

Mao Anying   毛岸英 Son of Mao Zedong and Yang Kaihui

shi   市 a City

zhen   镇 a Town

cun   村 a Village

Vo Nguyên Giáp   武元甲 Great military hero of Vietnam

Wéi Guóqīng   韦国清

Dien Bien Phu   奠边府 City in Vietnam where the French were defeated in 1954

Pham Van Dong   范文同   Former prime minister of Vietnam

Liuzhou, Guangxi   广西柳州 Major city in Guangxi province

Huan Xiang   宦乡   Journalist and diplomat

Bandung   万隆 City in Indonesia, site of a famous conference

Gao Gang   高岗  Heavyweight in northeast China and later victim of the first purge after the PRC was established.

San Fan   三反运动 The Three Anti Campaign launched end 1951

Wu Fan   五反运动 The Five Anti Campaign launched in early 1952

Direct download: CHP-165-Zhou_Enlai_Part_5.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:23am PST

CHP-164-Zhou Enlai Part 4

In this Part 4 episode of the CHP Zhou Enlai series Laszlo re-tells the always amusing story of when the Americans came around Yan'an to kick the tires of the CCP and see what they were all about. Many of these events from today's episode were covered in previous podcasts (Kang Sheng, Deng Xiaoping, John Service and Civil War). This time Zhou again proves his loyalty and devotion to Mao and as always to China. He gets a real workout as far as developing his role as the Communists (and later China's) chief diplomat.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Yan'an   延安   Revolutionary base of the CCP after the Long March

Kang Sheng   康生   康生 Early CCP secret police chief and later "godfather" of the Cultural Revolution

Shaanxi   陕西 Province in northwest China

Zunyi   遵义 2nd largest city in Guizhou

Zhang Guotao   张国焘 Senior Communist leader and rival to Mao

Bo Gu   博古 One of the 28 Bolsheviks and right hand to Wang Ming

Wang Ming   王明   Comintern appointed CCP leader and head of the 28 Bolsheviks

Zhu De   朱德 Founder of the Red Army

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   Early Mao supporter and later top leader in China

Bo Yibo 薄一波 Early Mao supporter, featured in an earlier CHP episode

Peng Zhen   彭真 Early Mao supporter and later mayor of Beijing

Chen Yi   陈毅   Great general, Shanghai mayor, Foreign Minister

zhishi fenzi   知识分子 intellectuals

He Zizhen   贺子珍 Mao's third wife (after Luo Yixiu and Yang Kaihui)

Lan Ping   蓝萍 Stage name of Jiang Qing

Li Shumeng   李淑蒙 Early name of Jiang Qing

Li Yunhe 李云鹤 Another early name of Jiang Qing

Jiang Qing   江青 Madame Mao, the name by which she is best known.

Wang Jiaxiang  王稼祥 Another former 28 Bolshevik and Party leader who sided with Mao

Ye Jianying   叶剑英   Immortal Communist military leader and statesman

Huang Hua   黄华 Great Chinese diplomat and vice premier

Chen Jiakang   陈家康 Early communist and very close to Zhou Enlai, serving as his chief liaison with foreign journalists.

Ma Haide   马海德   Dr. George Hatem, subject of a future episode.

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Lin Biao   林彪   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Nie Rongzhen   聂荣臻   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

He Long   贺龙   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Liu Bei  刘备 Great Sichuan hero and King of Shu. One of the main characters of Romance of the Three Kingdoms

Zhuge Liang   诸葛亮 Another main character from Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Wise advisor to Liu Bei

Shaoshan   韶山 Birthplace of Mao near Xiangtan

Jinggangshan   井冈山   The cradle of the revolution, where Mao went after the Autumn Harvest Uprising

Ruijin   瑞金   City on Fujian-Jiangxi border

Zhangjiakou   张家口 City of 4.4 million that borders Beijing, Inner Mongolia and Shanxi

Lingdao   领导 leader

Zaolin'gou   枣林沟 Site of a key meeting after Yan'an was evacuated

Panlongzhen  蟠龙镇 Place in Shaanxi where Peng Dehuai raided a KMT supply depot

Ren Bishi   任弼时 Early political and military communist leader. Died in 1950.

Shanxi   山西 Northern province bordering Shaanxi

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超 Wife and lifelong partner of Zhou Enlai

Liao-Shen Campaign   辽沈战役 The first of the three great military campaigns 9-12-1948 to 11-2-1948  

Xibaipo 西柏坡 Town near Shijiazhuang that served as Mao's new base after Yan'an.

Shijiazhuang 石家庄 Capital Hebei Province

Hebei   河北 Province in China where Beijing is geographically located (but not part of)

Huai-Hai Campaign 淮海战役 The second of the three great military campaigns 11-6-1948 to 1-10-1949

Ping-Jin Campaign 平津战役 The last of the three great military campaigns 11-29-1948 to 1-31-1949

Li Zongren   李宗仁 Succeeded Chiang as president in January 1949

Xikou   溪口 Birthplace of Chiang Kai-shek

Ningbo   宁波 Major port city in Zhejiang province

tuocha   沱茶 usually 100 gram dome shaped tea bricks

Sheng Pu-erh   生普洱 Raw Pu-erh Tea

Menghai Tea Factory   勐海茶厂 Famous tea factory in Xishuangbanna

Xishuangbanna   西双版纳 One of the great tea cities of China

Shou Pu-erh  熟普洱 Ripe Pu-erh tea

Xiaguan Tea Factory   下关茶厂 Famous tea factory in Dali

Dali 大理  formerly known as Xiaguan, city in Yunnan

Yunnan 云南 Southwest province of China

gaiwan   盖碗 covered tea bowls

shiba da   十八大 The 18th Party Congress

Gum jie   金姐 Long serving tea lady at the CHP Complex

 

The CHP Pu-Erh Tea / Gaiwan Gift Set

http://www.teasenz.com/pu-erh-tuocha-tea-gaiwan-gift-set

 

Elias Belhaddad's History of Islam Podcast

http://historyofislampodcast.blogspot.co.uk

 

 THE ONE, THE ONLY, THE ANTHILL

theanthill.org

"While We're Here"

earnshawbooks.com

 

Direct download: CHP-164-Zhou_Enlai_Part_4R.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:38pm PST

CHP-163-Zhou Enlai Part 3

In this Part 3 episode the story of Zhou Enlai is taken all the way up to the 1943 Yan'an Rectification Campaign.  We'll look at the Zunyi Conference, the Long March, the Xian Incident and finally the ill-fated Second United Front.  At every historic moment, Zhou Enlai was there, playing a lead role.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Ruijin   瑞金   City on Fujian-Jiangxi border

Gu Shunzhang   顾顺章 Early CCP leader and later betrayer

Xiang Zhongfa   向忠发 Early CCP leader appointed by the Comintern.

Bo Gu 博古 One of the 28 Bolsheviks and right hand to Wang Ming

Zhu De   朱德 Founder of the Red Army

Guizhou   贵州 Western province in China

Liping   黎平 City in eastern Guizhou

Guiyang Capital of Guizhou Province

Zunyi   遵义 City just north of Liping

Zunyi Huiyi The Zunyi Conference

Wang Ming   王明 Comintern appointed CCP leader and head of the 28 Bolsheviks

Zhang Wentian 张闻天 Former 28 Bolshevik and Party leader who sided with Mao

Wang Jiaxiang 王稼祥 Another former 28 Bolshevik and Party leader who sided with Mao

Yang Shangkun 杨尚昆 Major CCP leader and later President of PRC

Zhang Guotao 张国焘 CCP founding member, Mao rival and later KMT defector

Lianghekou 两河口 Place in northern Sichuan, site of the Lianghekou Meeting 6/28/1935

Maoergai 毛儿盖 Place in northern Sichuan, site of the Maoergai Meeting in August 2935.

Dadu River 大渡河 River in Sichuan, site of a famous battle during the Long March retreat

Yang Lisan   楊立三 Future PRC minister, helped carry Zhou's stretcher during the Long March

Zong Hòuqín Bù 总后勤部 Logistics and supply division of the PLA

Fu Lianzhang 傅连暲 Nelson Fu, Western trained Chinese doctor who made the Long March

Deng Yingchao 邓颖超   Wife and lifelong partner of Zhou Enlai

Yang Hucheng 杨虎城 Nationalist general commanding the Northwest Army

Dongbei Jun 东北军 The Northeast Army

Zhang Xueliang 张学良 The Young Marshal, son of Zhang Zuolin, PRC hero, ROC villain.

Shao Shi   少师 Young Marchal

Zhang Zuolin   张作霖 The Manchurian Warlord, father of Zhang Xueliang

Jiu Yi Ba 九一八 September 18, 1931 the Mukden Incident

Pu Yi 溥仪 the Last Emperor, brought out of retirement to be the figurehead of Manchukuo

Manchukuo 满洲国 Japanese puppet state set up in Manchuria

Yan'an 延安 Revolutionary base of the CCP after the Long March

Shaanxi 陕西 Northwest province of China.

Xian 西安 Site of ancient Chinese capitals and the capital of Shaanxi Province

Xinhua 新华 New China

Luoyang   洛阳 Former imperial capital from ancient times, city in Henan

Tang Xuanzong   唐玄宗 The Tang Dynasty emperor who took the dynasty to great heights

Yang Guifei 杨贵妃 Tang Xuanzong's favorite concubine

H.H. Kung 孔祥熙 Husband of Song Ailing and consummate insider into ROC politics

Song Meiling 宋美龄 Madame Chiang Kai-shek

T.V. Soong 宋子文 Brother of the Soong Sisters

Chiang Ching-kuo   蒋经国 Future ROC president and son of Chiang Kai-shek

Song Qingling   宋庆龄   Madame Sun Yat-sen

Xikou   溪口 Near Ningbo, the birthplace of Chiang Kai-shek and location of the Young Marshal's first prison.

Ba Lu Jun 八路军 The Eighth Route Army

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀 Great Red Army general

Ye Ting  叶挺 Red Army general from the early days of the revolution

Xiang Ying 项英 Early CCP organizer and leader in the New Fourth Army

Chongqing   重庆 Wartime capital of China after it was removed from Nanjing and Wuhan

Lan Ping - Jiang Qing 蓝苹 - 江青 - Madame Mao

Xinhua Ribao 新华日报 the New China Daily.

Tai'erzhuang campaign 台儿庄会战 a.k.a. The Battle of Taierzhuang. The Rep. of China's first victory over the Japanese army.

Li Zongren 李宗仁 former Guangxi warlord together with Bai Chongxi

Bai Chongxi   白崇禧 former Guangxi warlord together with Li Zongren

Wuhan   武汉 City in Hubei made up of Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang

Bai Qiu'en 白求恩Norman Bethune

Dong Biwu   董必武 Early CCP leader and founding member

Chen Duxiu   陈独秀   CCP Co-Founder, along with Li Dazhao

Changsha 长沙 Capital of Hunan Province

Guilin 桂林 Picturesque city in Guangxi Province

Ye Jianying   叶剑英 Immortal Communist military leader and statesman

Dai Li 戴笠 Chiang Kai-shek's secret police chief

Shangguan Yunxiang   上官云相 KMT General, led the New Fourth Army Incident

Chen Yi   陈毅   Great general, Shanghai mayor, Foreign Minister

Liu Shaoqi 刘少奇 Great early CCP mover and shaker of a thousand talents. Prime target of the Cultural Revolution.

Yan'an Zhengfeng Yundong 延安整风运动 Yan'an Rectification Movement

Yundong 运动 Campaign or movement

Available for the holidays: The CHP Pu-Erh Tea - Gaiwan Gift Set

 

Also check out:

theanthill.org

"While We're Here"

earnshawbooks.com

 

and also....

Penguin Books China

 

"The Great Wall in 50 Objects" - William Lindesay

 

Shelia Melvin and Jindong Cai's "Beethoven in China: How the Composer Became an Icon in the People's Republic"

 

Direct download: CHP-163-Zhou_Enlai_Part_3.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:40am PST

CHP-162-Zhou Enlai Part 2

In this second part of what's shaping up to be a long series, Laszlo picks up at the Zhongshan Gunboat Incident and follows the life of Zhou Enlai through the challenging years of 1926-1934.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Huai'an 淮安   Located in Jiangsu, birthplace of Zhou Enlai

Shenyang   沈阳 City in Liaoning Province

Tianjin   天津 Major city east of Beijing

Zhongshan Jian Shijian   中山舰事件 The Zhongshan Gunboat Incident

Wu Peifu   吴佩孚 Zhili Clique warlord

Sun Chuanfang 孙传芳 The Nanking Warlord

Duan Qirui   段祺瑞 China statesman and Anhui Clique warlord

Feng Yuxiang   冯玉祥 The "Christian Warlord" of the Zhili Clique

Zhang Zuolin   张作霖 The Manchurian Warlord

Wang Jingwei   汪精卫 Early leader of the Republic China

Fuxing lu   复兴路 Road in Shanghai formerly known as Rue Lafayette

Kang Sheng   康生 Early CCP secret police chief and later "godfather" of the Cultural Revolution

Chen Duxiu   陈独秀   CCP Co-Founder

Wang Shouhua 汪寿华 a key CCP leader in Shanghai and Labor leader

Du Yuesheng 杜月笙 Shanghai "Green Gang" crime boss

Zhao Shu 赵舒 Led Chiang Kai-shek's 26th Army. Saved Zhou's life.

Wuhan   武汉 City in Hubei made up of Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang

Li Dazhao   李大钊 CCP Co-Founder

Zhu De   朱德 Founder of the Red Army

He Long 贺龙 Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Lin Biao   林彪   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Ye Ting  叶挺 Red Army general from the early days of the revolution

Nanchang   南昌 Capital of Jiangxi Province

Lu Xun   鲁迅 One of the greatest writers of his age

Mao Dun   real name 沈德鸿, great writer and former Minister of Culture

Qiushou Qiyi 秋收起义   Mao's Autumn Harvest Uprising

Nie Rongzhen   聂荣臻 Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Chen Yi   陈毅   Great general, Shanghai mayor, Foreign Minister

Chaoshan   潮汕 Abbreviation for Chaozhou-Shantou

Chaozhou and Shantou 潮州和汕头 The twin cities of Chaozhou and Shantou in Guangdong

Xu Xiangqian 徐向前 Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Jinggangshan   井冈山 The cradle of the revolution, where Mao went after the Autumn Harvest Uprising

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超   Wife and lifelong partner of Zhou Enlai

Xiang Zhongfa   向忠发 Early CCP leader appointed by the Comintern.

Li Lisan   李立三 Xiang's right hand who also played a leadership role

Song Qingling   宋庆龄   Madame Sun Yat-sen

Zhongyang Teke 中央特科 The CCP secret police (中国共产党中央特别行动科)

Gu Shunzhang   顾顺章 Early CCP leader and later betrayer

Wang Ming   王明 Comintern appointed CCP leader and head of the 28 Bolsheviks

Bo Gu  博古 One of the 28 Bolsheviks and right hand to Wang Ming

Ruijin   瑞金   City on Fujian-Jiangxi border

Dai Li 戴笠 Chiang Kai-shek's secret police chief

Peng Dehuai   彭德华 Great Red Army general

Futian Incident 富田事变 December 1930 incident where a mutinous battalian was put down

Ningdu   宁都 Site of a famous pre-Zunyi Conference CCP meeting

Li De   李徳 Chinese name of Comintern agent Otto Braun

Xiang Ying 项英 Early CCP organizer and leader in the New Fourth Army

Tan Zhenlin   谭震林 Great Red Army general

Qu Qiubai   瞿秋白 CCP leader, literary figure and martyr

Chen Jitang 陈济棠 A Hakka NRA general who turned on Chiang Kai-shek

The Xinhai Revolution   辛亥革命 The event that began with the Wuchang Uprising 10-10-1911

Xiang River   湘江 Largest river in Hunan and a major tributary of the Yangzi.

Guizhou   贵州 Western province in China

Liping   黎平 City in eastern Guizhou

Miao   苗族 In Vietnam they're known as the Hmong. General term for a diverse minority people in China (as well as Laos, Vietnam). Over 200,000 in the US.

Zunyi   遵义 City just north of Liping

 

Direct download: CHP-162-Zhou_Enlai_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 1:57pm PST

CHP-161-Zhou Enlai Part 1

In today's Part 1 episode Laszlo explores the early life of Zhou Enlai, growing up in a traditional scholar-official's family that had seen better days. Zhou gets passed from relative to relative. But each step of the way there were mentors and breaks that he was able to make the most of. We can see through his early years and into his teens how Zhou was perfectly trained and tested for the larger job that lay ahead.

 

CHP-161-Zhou Enlai Part 1 Terms

 

Zhou Enlai 周恩来 1898-1976

Jung Chang 张荣 British Chinese author famous for her critical biography of Mao Zedong and her book Wild Swans

Zhou zongli 周总理 Premier Zhou

Liu Shaoqi 刘少奇 One-time top Chinese leader, hounded to death during the Cultural Revolution

Lin Biao 林彪 Great military leader, later Mao's successor but not for long.

Wang Hongwen 王洪文 One of the Gang of Four and Mao's appointed successor but not for long.

Hua Guofeng 华国锋   Succeeded Mao in 1976 as Chairman of the Party

Deng Xiaoping 邓小平   Featured in CHP episodes 63-70

Huái'ān 淮安   City in northern Jiangsu province

Jiangsu 江苏   Province just north of Zhejiang

Shaoxing 绍兴   Historic city in Zhejiang, just west of Shanghai

Tianjin 天津 City in the north, just east of Beijing

Song Meiling 宋美龄   Madame Chiang Kai-shek

Zhou Panlong   周攀龙 Zhou Enlai's paternal grandfather

Zhou Yineng 周貽能 Zhou Enlai's father

Wan Dong'er 万冬儿 Zhou Enlai's natural mother

Lady Chen 陈氏 Zhou's 养母 or adoptive mother

Jiang Zhou's nurse who took care of him

Zhou Yigan 周贻淦 Zhou's uncle (younger brother of father)

shushu 叔叔 Uncle (younger brother of father)

didi 弟弟   Younger brother

muqin 母亲   Mother

ganma 干妈   Adoptive mother

waigong 外公   grandfather (father of one's mother)

Zhou Yiqian 周贻谦 Zhou's uncle (elder brother of father)

bofu 伯父   Uncle (elder brother of father)

Zhou Yigeng Uncle of Zhou Enlai who got led him to Tianjin

Zou Rong   邹容 Early revolutionary writer

Gemingjun 革命军 Revolutionary Army, Zou Rong's great work.

Kang Youwei 康有为   Reformer in the late 19th century

Liang Qichao 梁启超   Student of Kang Youwei who participated in the 100 Days of Reform

Nankai Middle School 天津南开中学

Yan Xiu 严修 Co-founder of Nankai Middle School

Zhang Boling 張伯苓 co-founder and president of Nankai

Jing Ye 敬业   Respect Work, Zhou Enlai's first journal

Xiao Feng 校风 School Wind School newspaper of Nankai

Chen Duxiu   陈独秀 Communist Party co-founder and writer

Xin Qingnian   新青年 Chen Duxiu's New Youth Magazine

Tianjin Xuesheng Lianhe Huibao 天津学生联合会包  Tianjin Student Union

Juewushe 觉悟社 Awakening Society

Deng Yingchao 邓颖超 Among other accomplishments, wife of Zhou Enlai

Yang Zhen Deng Yingchao's mother

Liu Qingyang 刘清扬 Early Communist Party member

Zhang Shenfu 张申府 Married to Liu Qingyang, another early Party operative

Li Dazhao 李大钊   CCP co-founder and librarian at Peking U

Guomintang 国民党 The KMT or Kuomintang

Li Fuchun 李富春 Longtime party leader, chairman of State Planning Commission

Nie Rongzhen 聂荣臻   Great military leader and called Father of China's Atomic Bomb

Zhu De 朱德   Red Army founder, great military leader

Chi Guang 赤光 Red Light, the journal printed in France

Guofu   国父 The Father of the Country (Sun Yat-sen)

Whampoa Military Academy 陆军官校 Funded and established by Soviets to train Chinese officers

Ye Jianying 叶剑英   Great military man and CCP stalwart

Chen Jiongming   陈炯明 Landlord in Guangdong, the target of the Eastern Campaign

Taiping Guan 太平馆 Restaurant in Guangzhou where Zhou and Deng Yingchao had a wedding reception.

Beijing Lu 北京路   Beijing Road

Zhongshan Gunboat Incident 中山舰事件 March 20, 1926, an incident that provoked a crackdown by Chiang Kai-shek against left leaning elements in the KMT as all Communists.

 

Go check out:

Nina Xiang's China Money Podcast

The Anthill - A Writer's Colony

The Sinica Podcast, a classic

Direct download: CHP-161-Zhou_Enlai_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:02pm PST

CHP-160-Jack Jones and the FAU China Convoy 1945-1951

Jack Jones is the bearded one in the image.  His story is told today in this little snapshot of a not very well-known organization that operated in 1940's China.  The Friends Ambulance Unit, later re-named the Friends Service Unit, was a Quaker funded charity that operated ambulances, provided urgent medical care and other charitable services during wartime. In China the China Convoy was created and in consort with the International Relief Committee, distributed medicines, medical supplies and equipment that aided thousands of local and usually impoverished Chinese.  The convoy service ran from 1945 to 1951.  Through the discovery of the lost writings of Jack Jones, author Andrew Hicks has brought this small story back to life.  It's not a big story like the Chu-Han Contention or the Battle of Red Cliff or the Cultural Revolution.  It serves as a reminder that besides the information that made it into the history books....there was this stuff happening too in many places all over China.  I strongly suggest Andrews Hicks's book, available here: http://www.fauchinaconvoy.blogspot.com and here: http://quakerbooks.org.    

Go check out:  http://www.chinamoneynetwork.com hosted by Nina Xiang

Terms from this episode

Hakka 客家 Hakka people

Mao 毛泽东 Chairman Mao

Zhu De 朱德 PLA founder

Zhou Enlai 周恩来 The Premier of China

Sima Qian 司马迁 China's Herodotus Writer of the Shi Ji.

Chongqing 重庆 Former city in Sichuan, now a direct controlled Municipality

Xichang 西昌 City in southern Sichuan

Xikang 西康 Former province during the Nationalist days

Zhongguo laobaixing 中国老百姓 The Chinese people

Ba Xian Guo Hai 八仙过海 The Eight Immortals cross the sea, discussed in CHP-052

shi jing xiao min   市井小民 Common people

Chinese Industrial Cooperatives 工业合作社 Set up by George Hogg

Bailie School 培黎学校 School for orphans founded by George Hogg

Shandan, Gansu Province 甘肃山丹 City in Gansu where the first Bailie School was located

 

 

Direct download: CHP-160-Jack_Jones_and_the_FAU_1945-1951.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:12pm PST

CHP-159-Chinese American Stars and Entertainers of Old Hollywood

In this episode Laszlo focuses on the history of Chinese Americans in the early years of Hollywood.  The period will focus on the 1920's to the 1950's.  During those years Asian Americans had a rough time in Hollywood trying to break away from stereotypical roles. American laws and attitudes stacked the deck against them but through their sacrifices and perseverance they blazed the trail for today's generation of Chinese-American movie, theater and TV artists.  CHP-159 looks at the lives of Anna May Wong and Jadin Wong as a window into these times. Below are the terms from this episode as well as some resources about Chinese Hollywood and Chinatowns.

Terms from this Episode

Marion Wong  黄女娣  Young film pioneer, established Mandarin Film Co. in 1916

Esther Eng    Producer, Director of Chinese language films in the US

James B. Leong  Chinese American actor between 1923-1960, directed Lotus Blossom in 1921.

Joseph Sunn Jue  The Darryl Zanuck of Chinatown, director and producer

Wong Chin Foo  王清福   Subject of Scott Seligman's book "The First Chinese American."

Anna May Wong   黄柳霜  1905-1961 American actress of the early days of Hollywood

Wong Sam Sing  黄善兴  Anna May Wong's father

Lee Gon Toy    Anna May Wong's mother

Taishan  台山  Historic town in the Pearl River delta region

Chang On  长安  Anna May Wong's father's ancestral village

Jadin Wong   黄玉美  Chinese American entertainer and later agent

Bok Kai Temple 北溪庙  Temple in Marysville, CA

Charlie Low  He built the Forbidden City nightclub in San Francisco

Arthur Dong 曾奕田 Documentary film maker, founder of Deep Focus Productions

Noel Toy  The Chinese Sally Rand, early Forbidden City club performer of risque dances

Coby Yee Entertainer and later owner of the Forbidden City

Haing S. Ngor吴汉润 Winner of the 1985 Oscar for Best Supporting actor for his unforgettable performance in the Killing Fields, gunned down in Chinatown in 1996.

Bessie Loo  Early Hollywood agent who specialized in roles for Asian American artists

John Lone  尊龙  Actor who played Pu Yi in Bertolucci's The Last Emperor

Joan Chen  陈冲  Actress who played in many roles in the 80's and 90's

Lucy Liu   刘玉玲  Reigning queen of Hollywood martial arts action films

Bai Ling  白灵 Actress who was also a client of Jadin Wong

David Henry Hwang  黄哲伦  Multi-talented artist best known for his play and film M. Butterfly

Larry Ching  The Chinese Sinatra, and a future CHP topic one day.

The Kim Loo Sisters  known as The Chinese Andrews Sisters

Dorothy Fong Toy  known as The Chinese Ginger Rogers

You Yat Mar  The Chinese Sophie Tucker

Chai Hong   The Chinese Chaplin

Barbara Jean Wong  The Chinese Shirley Temple

Nancy Kwan   关家蒨  Famous for her roles in The World of Suzie Wong and The Flower Drum Song

Keye Luke   陆锡麟  Best known for his role as Charlie Chan's Number One Son, Keye Luke had a very prolific and successful career in Hollywood.

Victor Sen Yung   杨森  Best known for his role as Hop Sing on Bonanza

Benson Fong   邝炳雄  Famous for many roles and for his Ah Fong's restaurants

Sammee Tong  Played John Forsyth's houseboy Peter Tong in The Bachelor Father TV series

Kam Fong  Most famous for his role as Chin Ho Kelly in the old Hawaii Five-0 series.

Tsai Chin   周采芹  Had a rich career on stage and on screen. Unforgettable in You Only Live Twice and The Joy Luck Club

Lisa Lu  卢燕  Three time Golden Horse Award winner. Still active in the movies and on TV since 1958.  Played the dying Empress Dowager Cixi in The Last Emperor.

James Wong Howe   黄宗霑  The immortal Hollywood cinematographer. Did over 130 films. Famous for Deep Focus cinematography. Nominated for ten Oscars, won two.  His own life was like a movie.

James Hong   吴汉章  One of the best known faces in Hollywood in over 500 roles on TV and in the movies. Played Lo Pan in John Carpenter's Big Trouble in Little China and Kahn, the butler in Chinatown.

 

Suggested Links for Further Study: 

Arthur Dong: Deep Focus Productions

Anna May Wong's IMDb Page

The Chinese American Museum, Los Angeles

The Chinese Historical Society of Southern California

Asian American Arts Alliance - Jadin Wong Award

 

Books: 

Forbidden City USA  - Book of the Arthur Dong documentary

"Anna May Wong: From Laundryman's Daughter to Hollywood Legend", Graham Russell Gao Hodges"

Scott Seligman amazon page

Jenny Cho amazon page 

Peter Kwong amazon page

Bonnie Tsui amazon page

Edward Said: Orientalism

 

Videos

Forbidden City USA DVD 

Hollywood Chinese - Arthur Dong documentary

Danwei TV Video on Anna May Wong with Sufei

Anna May Wong in The Toll of the Sea (YouTube) 

Anna May Wong in Bombs Over Burma (YouTube)

Anna May Wong The Lady From Chungking (You Tube)

Yunah Hong speaking about her documentary on Anna May Wong

Direct download: CHP-159-Chinese_American_Stars_and_Entertainers_of_Old_Hollywood.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:05pm PST

CHP-158-The Rise and Fall of the Qin Part 2

This time Laszlo finishes off the Qin in two parts as promised.  Apologies for the lopsidedness of it all.  In this extra long episode Laszlo takes the Qin to their height and examines their legacy.  The Qin Dynasty had a spectacular fall lasting only a few years after the early death of its founder Qin Shihuang.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Qin Shihuang  秦始皇  The First Qin Emperor, Ying Zheng

Shang Yang  商鞅  Great Qin statesman, helped make the Qin. 390-338 BCE

Qin    The kingdom and later dynasty, led by the Ying Clan.

Ying Zheng   嬴政  Qin Shihuang's name 

Duke Xiao   秦孝公  Qin Xiao Gong He lived 381 to 338 BCE

King Huiwen or King Hui  秦惠文王  King of Qin 338-311 BCE, son of Zhaoxiang

Chengdu   成都  Largest city and capital of Sichuan, site of the ancient Shu Kingdom

Qinling Mountains  秦岭Mountain range separating Shaanxi from Sichuan, also Qin Mountains (ling means mountain range)

Wei River   渭河  One of the major tributaries of the Yellow River

Shaanxi  西 Province in China, capital is Xian

Sichuan  四川  Province in southwest China

Shu  蜀国  Shu State near Chengdu

Shiniu Dao  石牛道 the Stone Cattle Road

Ba State   巴国  Ba State near Chongqing

Chongqing    Municipality formerly part of Sichuan

Wu Lizhen   吴理真  Planted seven tea trees on Mengding Mountain, first known tea cultivation

Mengding Shan  Mountain near Chengdu site of the first known cultivation of tea

Sanxingdui   三星堆  Archaeological discovery of an ancient non-Han civilization located halfway between Chengdu and Deyang.

Jinsha   金沙  Another great archaeological discovery near Chengdu.

Dujiangyan  都江堰  One of the most important irrigation projects in Chinese history. It tamed the Min River and  changed the face of agriculture in Sichuan.

Li Bing   李冰  The Qin governor down in Sichuan, directed construction of Dujiangyan.

Fan Sui  范睢  died 255 BCE, gave his king Zhaoxiang the winning strategy

King Zhāoxiāng, Qin Zhao Wang  昭襄王   Qin leader, reined 306-251 BCE

Bai Qi白起  Qin general served under Zhaoxiang.  Undefeated.

Meixian西眉 Mei County in Shaanxi, west of Xian.

Ren Tu    The Butcher of Men, Bai Qi's nickname (well-earned I might add)

Si Da Ming Jiang  四大名将  the four great generals of the day.  Bai Qi白起, Lian Po  , Li Mu李牧 and  Wang Jian 王翦

Battle of Changping   长平之战 The bloody battle where the Qin demolished the Zhao 262-260 BCE

Chu State   楚国  Chu State  near Hubei

Zuo Shu zhang 秦朝左庶 left militia general

Han    The Han Sate, sandwiched between Chu, Qin and Wei

Wei  魏国  Kingdom of Wei, east of Qin, south of Zhao

Yichuan County  伊川is located in Henan just south of Luoyang near the famous Longmen Grottoes.

The Longmen Grottoes  龙门石窟  UNESCO Heritage site containing thousands of statues of Buddha and paintings.

Battle of Yique伊阙, near modern day Longmen, 293 BCE Qin defeated the combined armies of Wei and Han.

Sima Cuo  马错 Qin general. Advised Huiwen to annex Shu and Ba

Huaxia    Ancient core China early name

Zhao     Zhao State  in the Yellow River Valley

Handan   City in Hebei Province, also the capital of Zhao

Zhao Kuo    Son Zhao She, got beat bad at the Battle of Changping

Zhao She Zhao general who once gave the Qin a lickin'

chengyu   Chinese saying or proverb, usually but not always four characters

zhishang tan bing   To discuss military strategy on paper

King Xiaocheng孝成王 King of Zhao who pulled Lian Po from the roster and put in Zhao Kuo

Huaihai Campaign   淮海One of the three final campaigns of the Chinese Civil War of 1948-49.

Sima Qian    China's Herodotus, writer of the Records of the Grand Historian

Gaoping 高平  County level city in southeast Shanxi, site of the Battle of Changping

Shanxi   山西 Province in China just east of Shaanxi

Shennong     The Divine Farmer, legendary discoverer of tea who gifted the Shen Nong Classic of Herbal Medicine.

Yan Di    炎帝 The Flame Emperor, considered to be Shennong

Zhou  周朝  The Zhou Dynasty

Ji clan    家族  The Zhou Dynasty ruling family

King Nǎn, Zhou Nan Wang周赧王 Last emperor of the Zhou Dynasty

King Xiaowen 秦孝文王 Also known as Lord Anguo, Qin Shihuang's grandfather. Didn't reign too long.

Shi Ji     The Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian

Han Dynasty  汉朝 One of China's greatest dynasties 206 BCE-220 CE

Lü Buwei  吕不韦  The man who put Qin Shihuang's father on the throne. Regent for young Qin Shihuang.

Zhao Ji 赵姬 Qin Shihuang's mother and a lover to many men (so says Sima Qian)

Lao Ai  嫪毐 Introduced to Zhao Ji after she became the Queen Dowager, tried and failed to seize power

Li Si   李斯 Took the philosophy of Legalism to great heights. Qin Shihuang's right hand man.

Zhao Gao 赵高 Palace eunuch who conspired with Li Si against Qin Shihuang's wishes.

Fu Su   扶苏 Qin Shihuang's heir, tricked into committing suicide

Hu Hai  胡亥 Younger son of Qin Shihuang, allowed Lao Ai and Li Si to stack the deck and allow him to become the new emperor

Meng Tian  蒙恬  Great Qin general who did most of his fighting in the north.  Key person in the construction of the Great Wall

Wey State Different from Wei State 魏国.  Absorbed by Jin before it broken upLü Buwei was from Wey.

Zichu 子楚 Other name of Qin Shihuang's father and later King Zhuangxiang.

Lady Huayang  阳夫人 Wife of Qin King Xiaowen

Zhengguo Canal  郑国渠  joined together the Jing and Luo Rivers, both tributaries of the Wei. Named after the builder Zheng Guo

Chelie 车裂  An ancient punishment where a person was tied to five chariots and pulled apart.

Lin Biao  林彪  Great military man and one time heir to Chairman Mao.

Jing Ke  荆轲  Assassin from Yan who wasn't able to bury his poison dagger into Ying Zheng

Yan   燕国  Yan State near Beijing

Chen Kaige 陈凯 Great Chinese film director. The Emperor and the Assassin

Gong Li  巩俐  Famous and talented Chinese actress

Zhang Yimou 张艺谋 One of the great film directors of China

Xiang Yu     The hegemon of Chu State, fought Liu Bang and lost.  Featured in CHP episode 91

Qi     Qi State  near Shandong

Zibo 淄博 Former capital of the Qi State

Lu  鲁国  State to the south of Qi.  Confucius came from Lu.

Qi Lu Liangguo 齐鲁两国  The two Shandong kingdoms of Qi and Lu

Shandong     Northeastern province of China

Wang Ben  王贲 Son of one of the four great generals of the Warring States period

Zhou Wu Wang 周武王 Co-founder of the Zhou, brother of the Duke of Zhou

Shang Dynasty   商朝  The Shang Dynasty 1600 BCE - 1046 BCE

King Zhou   Last Shang King, and a wicked one at that. Also known as Di Xin

Huangdi  皇帝  Emperor

San Huang Wu Di   三皇五帝  The mythical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors

Shi'er Jinren  十二金人  Twelve Gold Men made from all the melted down weapons handed in from the defeated warring states

Xianyang   咸阳 Near modern day Xian. Capital of Qin

Lingnan   岭南the southern region of China comprising mostly Guangdong and Guangxi

Guangdong 广东 southernmost province of continental China and a rich one at that

Guangxi  广西 An autonomous region just west of Guangdong

Fujian  福建  Province just north of Guangdong

Baiyue百越 The Hundred Yue

Nanyue  南越 the southern Yue

Tu Sui  屠睢  Qin general who got schooled when he invaded the Lingnan region

Han Wudi 汉武帝 Great conquering emperor of the Western Han Dynasty

beifang caoyuan 北方草原  The grasslands of the north

Xiongnu  匈奴  Also referred to sometimes as the Huns, a northern nomadic people

Xiang Jiang  湘江 The Xiang River

Dongting Lake  洞庭湖 the dividing marker between Hubei and Hunan.

Guilin  桂林 Gorgeous city in Guangxi

Li Jiang  漓江 the Li River (not to be confused with the other Li River

Min 岷江  Min River in Sichuan, tamed by the Dujiangyan irrigation project

Lingqu Canal 灵渠 The Ling Canal...linked the Xiang with the Li

Qinchao Sanda Shuiligongcheng秦朝三大水利工程  The three great irrigation project of the Qin

Shi Lu史禄  Architect of the Ling Qu, the Ling Canal

zhishi fenzi分子 intellectuals

Huizong 宋徽宗  Song Dynasty emperor, featured in a CHP four-part series

Siku Quanshu 四库全书  The Emperor's Four Treasures, commissioned by Qianlong. 36,381 Volumes divided up into 79,000 chapters, over two million pages and about 800 million characters.

Dapingtai Village 大平台村  The village in Hebei where the Qin emperor died

Qin Èrshì  秦二世  The Second Qin Emperor

Dazexiang Uprising  大泽乡起义The first major uprising against the Qin - July to December in the year 209 BCE

Chen Sheng陈胜also known as Chen She One of the leaders of the Dazexiang Uprising

Wu Guang  吴广 The other leader of the Dazexiang Uprising

Liu Bang   刘邦  Han Dynasty founder

Wu Xíng 五刑  The Five Pains.  Tattooing the face, nose cut off, foot cut off, private parts cut off and the fifth pain for Li Si was the old Yāozhǎn.  Cut in half at the waist

Ziying  子婴  The third and final Qin emperor, reigned for 46 days

Battle of Julu  钜鹿之战  fought near present day Xingtai in Hebei, Xiang Yu, leading the Chu army knocked the Qin army out clean in 207 BCE

Luoyang   洛阳  Eastern capital of the Zhou Dynasty

Sanmenxia 三门峡City in Henan in the cradle of Chinese civilization

Nanhai Commandery南海郡 The Qin office that administered the two Guang's, based near Guangzhou

Zhao Tuo  赵佗  Qin officer in charge of the Nanhai Commandery. Founded the Nanyue Kingdom

Lüshi Chunqiu  氏春秋 Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals.

banliangqian  半两钱 Qin standardized coin that weighed eight liang

banliang  半两 half a liang. 16 liang equaled a jin One Jin was 0.604 kilos or 1.3 lbs

banjin baliang  半斤八两 Our English version of six of one and a half dozen of the other.

 

Historic Teas of China available at Teasenz.com

The Link is here:  HISTORIC TEAS OF CHINA

The Teas you get: 

1.     Dahongpao from Wuyi Mountain, Fujian

2.     Tieguanyin 铁观 from Anxi, Fujian

3.     Huangshan Maofeng黄山毛峰from Huang Shan Anhui Province

4.     Longjing 西湖 from West Lake, Hangzhou

5.     Two kinds of raw Pu-erh 普洱 tea in loose and brick form.

 

Two books I used prodigiously for this Qin Two-Part series:

 

Frances Wood, "The First Emperor of China"

 

Mark Edward Lewis: "The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han"

Direct download: CHP-158-The_Rise_and_Fall_of_the_Qin_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 10:17pm PST

In this first of two episodes Laszlo gives Qin Shihuang, the subject of the first ever China History Podcast episode, a total makeover.  

The Historic Teas of China: Check it out right here:  http://www.teasenz.com/historic-teas-china-gift-box

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Qin Shi Huang  秦始皇 The first emperor of China, Qin Dynasty founder

Y.K. Pao  包玉  Featured in CHP-124, HK tycoon and philanthropist

Zhongguo ren   中国人  A Chinese

Zhao    Zhao State  in the Yellow River Valley

Qi     Qi State  near Shandong

Chu   楚国  Chu State  near Hubei

Yue   越国  Yue State  near Zhejiang

Ba   巴国  Ba State near Chongqing

Shu  蜀国  Shu State near Chengdu

Zhou   周朝  The Zhou Dynasty

Yan   燕国  Yan State near Beijing

Xia   夏朝  The Xia Dynasty, mythical they say it was...

Shang   商朝  The Shang Dynasty

Sima Qian     China's Herodotus

Shiji     The Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian

Song dynasty   宋朝  The Song Dynasty

Lintong, Shaanxi   西  Town outside Xian where the terra cotta warriors were found

Puyi     China's Last Emperor

Ying     The surname of the Qin Kings and Dukes

Ying Zheng   嬴政  Qin Shihuang's name

Ying Zhuangxiang   秦庄襄王  Qin Shihuang's father

Wei River  渭河  One of the major tributaries of the Yellow River

Xian   西安  Capital of Shaanxi, one of China's most ancient cities.

Gansu     Western Province in China

Tianshui   天水  Gansu's second largest city after Lanzhou

Rong      "Barbarian" people to the west and north of the core China

Si Yi    四夷  The "Four Barbarians"

Dongyi   One of the four "barbarians"

Beidi   北狄  One of the four "barbarians"

Nanman  南蛮  One of the four "barbarians"

Duke Xiang   秦襄公Qin leader 777-766 BCE

Ji Family   家族  The Zhou Dynasty ruling family

Luoyang   洛阳  Eastern capital of the Zhou Dynasty

Chengzhou   成周  Ancient name of Luoyang

Zhou King Ping   周平王 Zhou King 770-720

Duke Wen   秦文公   Qin ruler 765-716 BCE

Shaanxi and Shanxi   西山西Neighboring provinces that almost sound the same

Hubei  湖北  Central China province

Henan   河南  Central China province

Hebei   河北  North-central China province

Shandong    North eastern province of China

Anhui   安徽  Central China province

Yu the Great   大禹  Xia Dynasty Founder

Huaxia   Ancient core China early name

Qin Mu Gong   秦穆公  Qin Ruler 659-621

Bawang  霸王  A hegemon

Wu State   吴国  State around Suzhou-Wuxi area

King Helü   阖闾  King of Wu  514-496 BCE

The Battle of Jìnyáng  金阳之 Battle of Jinyang 455-453 BCE

Taiyuan   太原  Capital of Shanxi

Zhi state  智国  The Zhi state, annihilated at the Battle of Jinyang

San Jia Fen Jìn   三家分晋   the Partition of Jin between 434 and 403 BCE.

Qi Xiong   七雄  The final seven warring states

Linzi     just east of modern day Zibo

Shang Yang  商鞅  Great Qin statesman, helped make the Qin. 390-338 BCE

Pi  錍  A kind of ancient weapon similar to a dagger on a long stick

Ren duo hao ban shi  人多好  When you have a lot of people to do the job, it's much easier.

Shi    knight, scholar

Zaixiang  宰相  chancellor or chief minister

Duke Xiao  秦孝公  Qin Xiao Gong He lived 381 to 338 BCE

chelie    death by being pulled apart by 5 chariots

zhulian jiuzu   九族 a.k.a. the zuzhu    That meant when Shang Yang went down, so did his whole family: parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren, siblings, uncles and uncle's spouses...they all had to go.

Xiang Yu    The hegemon of Chu State, fought Liu Bang and lost.  Featured in CHP episode 91

Liu Bang   刘邦  Han Dynasty founder

Shang Jun Shu商君or just the Shangzi  商子  credited to Shang Yu, the blueprint fort Legalism and how to run the Qin State.

Han Feizi   非子lived from 280 to 236 BCE The man who made Legalism famous

Fan Sui  范睢  died 255 BCE, gave his king the strategy of yuanjiao jingong.  

yuan jiao jin gong   远交近攻   Make allies of those far away in order to focus on defeating those who are nearby.

King Zhaoxiang  昭襄王   Qin leader, reined 306-251 BCE

Battle of Changping   长平之战The bloody battle where the Qin demolished the Zhao 262-260 BCE

Direct download: CHP-157-The_Rise_and_Fall_of_the_Qin_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:47pm PST

CHP-156-Joseph Needham Part 2

In this Part 2 episode Laszlo continues his intro of Joseph Needham in 1943 right after Needham returned from his perilous adventure to the northwest of China to visit the sights of Dunhuang.  We'll conclude the life of Joseph Needham in this episode. He truly was, as Simon Winchester called him, "The Man Who Loved China."

 

 

 

Terms from this episode:

 

Jianqiao Daxue yu Zhongguo Daxue hezuo weiyuanhu 剑桥大学与中国大学合作委员会The Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office, the

Mogao Grottoes   莫高窟  The caves at Dunhuang where so much Buddhist treasure was found.

Chongqing     Former wartime capital of China also known as Chungking

Fujian province  福建省 Province on the east coast of China below Zhejiang

Fuzhou   福州  Capital of Fujian

Kunming   昆明  Capital of Yunnan

Zhongguo Kēxué jìshù shi 中国科学技  Science and Civilization in China

Nantong  南通  City in Jiangsu

Jiangsu   江苏  Province on east coast of China north of Zhejiang

Wang Ling   王玲  Chinese and Australian educator and researcher

Lizhuang   李庄  City located on the banks of the Yangzi

Sichuan   四川  Province in the soutwest next door to Tibet

Zhú Kězhēn  竺可桢  Professor Coching Chu, Zhejiang University president 1936-49.

Gǔjīn Túshū Jíchéng   古今图书集成  Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings of Ancient and Modern Times

Lu Guizhen   鲁桂珍 (1904-1991) Biochemist and long-time assistant to Needham

Xiangqi   象棋 Chinese version of chess

Guō Mòruò    郭沫若 great writer, poet and archaeologist 

Shenyang   沈阳  Capital of Liaoning, also known in the past as Mukden

Lu Shiguo   鲁仕国  Father of Lu Guizhen

Zhongguo   中国  China, the Middle Kingdom

Qián Cúnxùn    Professor T.H. Tsien (Tsien Tsuen-hsuin).  A giant in Chinese library science.  Wrote Volume V, Part 1 on paper and printing.

Simon Winchester's amazon page click here

Direct download: CHP-155-Jospeh_Needham_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 8:35am PST

CHP-155-Joseph Needham Part 1

In this long awaited topic Laszlo introduces "The Man Who Loved China", Dr. Joseph Needham.  A true friend of China for most of his adult life, Needham's contribution was the epic work "Science and Civilization in China".  Today this massive undertaking is spread out over 24 volumes, 17 of which were written in Needham's own lifetime.  Prior to Jospeh Needham getting the word out, China was not getting the respect it deserved for all its great contributions to human civilization.  He carried out intensive research and brought his findings to the public.  In this Part 1 episode we only go up to 1943 and the end of Needham's first expedition in China. 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Zhongguo Kexue jìshù shi  中国科学技  Science and Civilization in China

Lu Guizhen   桂珍  (1904-1991) Biochemist and long-time assistant to Needham

Luo Zhongshu   罗忠恕  (1903-1985) Scholar who got the word out in the west about China's suffering under Japan.

Jianqiao Daxue yu Zhongguo Daxue hezuo weiyuanhui

剑桥大学与中国大学合作委员会  Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office

Lu Shiguo鲁仕国  Father of Lu Guizhen

luohou  落后  backwards

Chongqing  重庆  Former wartime capital of China also known as Chungking

Huang Xingzong  H.T. Huang

Min River   岷江  Great river of China where Dujiangyan is located

Dadu River  大渡河  Another tributary of the Yangzi

Lushan  芦山  City in Sichuan near Ya'an, (written in the book as Loushan)

Lizhuang  李庄 City located on the banks of the Yangzi

Anyang   安阳 City in northern Henan where the Shang period Yin Ruins are located

Wang Yuanlu  圆箓  The guy who got duped into selling 24 wagon loads of treasure, including the Diamond Sutra to Aurel Stein for about 220 quid.

Hanzhong   汉中   City in Shaanxi

Baoji    Another city in Shaanxi

Shaanxi   西  One of the great ancient provinces of China

Jiayuguan  嘉峪关  End of the line as far as the Great Wall went. 

Dunhuang   敦煌  Great trading city and center for Buddhist learning.

Liao Hongying   鸿Chemist, Worked for British Council in Chengdu

Dujiangyan  都江堰  One of the greatest civil irrigation projects in human history that provided benefits to hundreds of millions of people since it was built in 256 BCE

Qin Shihuang   秦始皇 The Qin emperor

Li Bīng   李冰  The official credited with overseeing the entire Dujiangyan project.

Shu kingdom   蜀国 The Kingdom located in and around where present-day Chengdu is located.

Shuangshipu  双石A town near Baoji in Shaanxi

Héxī Corridor河西走廊  The geographic region running east and west inside Gansu Province.  It was an ancient road from thousands of years ago.

Mogao Caves  莫高窟  The caves at Dunhuang where so much Buddhist treasure was found.

Northern Zhou  北周  (557-581) A northern Dynasty during the Northern & Southern Dynasties Period

Nanbei Chao   南北朝  (420-589) The Northern and Southern Dynasties Period

Yang Jian    杨坚 Former Northern Zhou official who went on to found the Sui Dynasty.

Simon Winchester amazon.com page:  http://www.amazon.com/Simon-Winchester/e/B000APLU5E/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1435163989&sr=8-1

 

Direct download: CHP-155-Jospeh_Needham_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:49pm PST

CHP-154-The Secret Nüshu Script

In this shorter than usual episode Laszlo introduces a little piece of culture taken from the southern portion of Hunan Province.  Generations of illiterate women from a single county on the Hunan-Guangxi border, denied education, created their own writing script.  Men never learned it and so it was used by these women to communicate with each other and to record their secret throughts and inspirations.  Almost lost to posterity, Nüshu has made somewhat of a revival and today others are learning it and keeping it alive. 

Terms from this Episode

 

Nüshu   

Shang Dynasty  商朝  The Shang Dynasty

Xiangnan Tuhua  湘南土  The local dialect of southern Hunan

Chengguan Tuhua  城关土  The dialect in and around Shangjiangxu Town

Cun    Village

Jiangyong County   江永 

Hunan  湖南  Province in China

Guangxi  广西 Province in China

Guilin  桂林  City in Guangxi

Shen Nong    You all remember him from the Tea Series, right??

Yao People  瑶族  The Yao minority people, also called the Dao in Vietnam

Shangjiangxu Town  上江圩  Ground Zero for Nüshu culture, located in Jiangyong County

Nüshu wenhua  文化  Nüshu Culture

Jiebai Zimei  拜姊妹  Sworn Sisters

Laotong  老同  “Old Same” A very close relationship arranged between two girls.  It lasted a lifetime

Jiangyong Xian 江永 Jiangyong County

Sanzhao  三朝  A custom followed on the third day after marriage or after birth

Sanzhaoshu  三朝  The Third Day Book

Xianfeng Emperor  咸丰帝

Guangxu Emperor  

Yang Huanyi    The last person who actually lived the Nüshu Culture.

Puyi     The Last Emperor

Putonghua  普通  Mandarin (language)

Zhou Shuoyi    Researcher who did much to revive Nüshu Culture

Yang Yueqing  月清 Canadian Film maker

 

 

Lisa See  http://www.lisasee.com/

Lisa See’s Novel about Nüshu, Snow Flower and the Secret Fan

 

Learn Mandarin at MSL MASTER:  http://mslmaster.com

 

Yang Yueqing’s documentary “Nü Shu: A Hidden Language of Women in China”

http://www.wmm.com/filmcatalog/makers/fm432.shtml

Direct download: CHP-154-The_Secret_Nushu_Script.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:12am PST

CHP-153-The History of Opium in China

In this episode Laszlo examines remarks made by distinguished UCLA Professor of Public Policy Mark Kleiman who had commented on Britain's participation in the Opium War.  The main point was that the cause of the Opium War was due more to protecting imperial tax revenues and the domestic market than trying to stamp out the opium problem. Opium's history in China began centuries before, at least during the Tang and maybe as far back as the Eastern Jin.  The focus of this episode is on opium's history in China prior to the Opium War.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

lao pengyou  老朋友   Old friends.

Xia Dynasty  夏朝

Shang Dynasty  商朝

Eastern Zhou 

Eastern Jin  

Nanfang Caomu Zhuang  南方草木装  Western Jin Scholar Ji Han (嵇含)

A Fu Rong 阿芙蓉  Ancient name for opium

A Fei Rong 阿肥蓉   Another name for opium

He Fu Rong 合甫融  Another name for opium

Yapian   Opium from the Arabic / Persian work afyun

Jiu Tang Shu  旧唐  The Old Book of Tang

Chen Cangqi’s Bencao Shiyi  陈藏器,本草拾遗   the Supplement to the Materia Medica

Tang Xuanzong  唐玄宗  Tang emperor on duty when the dynasty peaked a second time.

Southern Song  南宋 

Ying Su poppy

Su Dongpo    苏东  a.k.a. Su Shi  苏轼

Xu Boling  徐伯 Wrote in 1483 about opium’s use in China as an aphrodisiac

Siku Quanshu    The Complete Library of the Four Treasures

Qianlong 乾隆帝  The long reigning Qianlong emperor

Yongle Emperor   大典  Yongle Encyclopedia

Xie Zhaozhe  肇淛 lived in late 16th – early 17th century Ming Dynasty China was a prolific writer of books

Ming Chenghua  明成化  Ming emperor

chunyao    aphrodisiac

Li Shízhēn 李時珍 Compendium of Materia Medica, the Bencao Gangmu 本草 - 1578

Tainan  台南  City on south coast of Taiwan

Madak  达克  Mixture of opium and tobacco

Ming Chongzhen  明崇  Final Ming emperor, committed suicide when the dynasty fell

Wan Li Emperor 明万  Ming emperor

Shisan Ling   十三陵  the Thirteen Ming Tombs just north of Beijing

Dingling  定陵  The Wanli Emperor's Tomb, excavated in 1956

Lady Zheng  郑贵  Wanli Emperor’s favorite consort

Kangxi emperor  康熙  Great and long reigning Qing emperor

Yongzheng Emperor   雍正  Successor to the Kangxi emperor

Jiajing Emperor  嘉靖  Qing emperor who followed the Qianlong emperor

Daoguang emperor  道光   Qing emperor who was on duty when the roof caved in on China

da Tu   大土  Patna opium (big soil)

xiao tu   小土  Malwa opium (马尔瓦鸦片) (small soil)

gong tu   公土   Another name for Malwa opium common soil.

Lin Zexu    Chinese hero who stood up to Britain

Zhang Changjia  昌甲 wrote a book in 1878 called “Opium Talk”, Yan Hua. 

Pu Yi    The last Qing emperor

Empress Wanrong  婉容皇后  Empress of China’s last emperor Pu Yi

Chen Chong    Joan Chen

Du Yuesheng   杜月笙  Big-Ears Tu

Yapian Guan   鸦片馆  An opium house

Yan Guan     An opium house

Ying chou   迎抽 A welcome smoke offered a gues upon arriving at your house

Shen Nong    

Lu Yu     

 

ChineseSkill: Find it at http://www.chinese-skill.com/cs.html

Download the free APP and start learning to speak Mandarin like the Pro's!

 

For more on opium and eroticism in Chinese literature:

Keith McMahon http://kmcmahon.faculty.ku.edu//

Professor, Chinese Language and Literature
East Asian Languages and Cultures
University of Kansas
 

Peter Lee's Opium Culture amazon link

Narcotic Culture - A History of Drugs in China

Direct download: CHP-153-The_History_of_Opium_in_China.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 3:24pm PST

CHP-152-The Flying Tigers Part 2

Laszlo finishes off the CHP overview of the story of the AVG in World War II.  In this episode the battle commences on December 20, 1941. From that point forward until the organization was disbanded on July 4, 1942 the Flying Tigers wrote their name into the history books.  

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Song Meiling 宋美龄 Soong Mei-ling, Madame Chiang Kai-shek

T.V. Song  宋子文  T.V. Soong, brother of Song Meiling

Yunnan  云南  Province in Southwestern China

Fei Hu  飞虎  The Flying Tigers

Kunming  昆明  Capital of Yunnan

Chen Xiangmei  陈香梅  Anna Chennault, 2nd wife of Claire Chennault

Nu Jiang  怒江  The Salween River separating Yunnan from Burma

Guilin  桂林  City in Guangxi

Hengyang  衡阳  City in Hunan

Yangren laihua zhuzhan, junmin yiti jiuhu  

洋人来华助战,军民一体救护 (洋人來華助戰,軍民一體救護)

This foreigner has come to China to help in the war. Soldiers and civilians, one and all, should rescue and protect him.

Hangkong Weiyuanhui 航空委员会  The Aviation Committee

Zhongguo Laobaixing  中国老百姓  The Chinese People

Jianchuan Museum 建川博物馆聚落  The Jianchuan Museum Complex

Feihu Qibingguan  飞虎奇兵馆  The Flying Tigers Museum

Fan Jianchuan  樊建川  Chengdu real estate mogul, founder of the museum complex

Daniel Ford's Book:  Flying Tigers: Claire Chennault and his American Volunteers 1941-1942

The Jianchuan Museum Complex Web Site

The Flying Tigers Official Web Site

Ray Harris's History of WWII Podcast

Direct download: CHP-152-The_Flying_Tigers_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 1:08pm PST

CHP-151-The Flying Tigers Part 1

In this Part 1 episode Laszlo provides all the setup and background for the magnificent story of the American Volunteer Group, known more popularly as The Flying Tigers.  Their’s was only an eight month long story but their success at a time when all seemed hopeless provided an inspiration to many and showed Japan was not invincible. 

 

Terms from this episode:

 

Zhong-Mei guanxi  中美关系  Sino-US relations

Zhōng-Mei hezuo  中美合作   Sino-US cooperation

Maguan Tiaoyue     关条   The Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895

Jiuyiba   九一八   The Mukden Incident of 9-18-1931

Qiqi Shibian  七七事  the Marco Polo Bridge Incident 7-7-1937

Chongqing     The wartime capital of Chongqing (also known as Chungking)

Kunming   昆明  Capital of Yunnan province.  Terminus of the Burma Road

T.V. Soong   宋子文  The often US-based brother of the Song sisters

Ailing  蔼龄  Oldest sister, Song Ailing, wife of Winston H.H. Kung

Qingling  庆龄   Middle sister, Song Qingling, Madame Sun Yat-sen

Meiling   宋美   Youngest sister, Song Meiling, Madame Chiang Kai-shek

Baituan Dazhan    the Hundred Regiments Offensive late 1940

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀  Legendary PLA general who led the Hundred Regiments Offensive

Sanguang Zhengce   三光政策  Japan’s horrific Three All’s Policy

Diamian Gonglu  公路  The Burma Road

 

Direct download: CHP-151-The_Flying_Tigers_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 12:39pm PST

CHP-150-The History of the Hakka People

CHP-150-The Hakka’s

 

In this milestone 150th CHP episode Laszlo shines a light on the Hakka people and where they fit in Chinese history.  There are no shortages of authoritative sources that all disagree as to their origins ands when the Hakka’s migrated from where to where.  Legends and stereotypes surrounded this sub-group of Chinese.  But one thing is for sure they  have carved an indelible spot in worldwide Chinese culture.  More than 80 million Hakka’s call this solar system their home.  Fifty minutes hardly offers a comprehensive look at any culture, let alone 客家文化.   In this episode Laszlo offers a general overview.  As always there is plenty of reading you can do and videos you can watch that give you a more satisfying meal than this episode can.

 Terms from this Episode

Hakka people  客家人  Translates to “Guest People”

Gan    Abbreviation for Jiangxi Province

Gan River    Main river in Jiangxi

Ganzhou     City in Jiangxi

Sima Yan     Founded Jin Dynasty. Temple name Jin Wudi

Cao Wei   曹魏  Northern of the Three Kingdoms

Shu    The western of the Three Kingdoms

Wu    The eastern of the Three Kingdoms

Jin Dynasty  晋朝  Founded by Jin Wudi

The Han    The Han Dynasty

Jin Wudi   晋武帝  Jin Dynasty founder

Luoyang  洛阳  Ancient capital city in China history

Emperor Min  晋愍帝  Last Western Jin emperor

Huizong  徽宗  Last emperor of the Northern Song

Wuhu   五胡  The Five Barbarian Tribes

Xiōngnú   匈奴  One of the Five Barbarian Tribes

Jié  One of the Five Barbarian Tribes

Xianbei    One of the Five Barbarian Tribes

     One of the Five Barbarian Tribes

Qiāng   One of the Five Barbarian Tribes

Zhao     Surname of the Song Dynasty emperors

Jiankang  建康  Ancient name of Nanjing

Nanjing   南京  City in Jiangsu, means Southern capital

Liu Yu   刘裕  Founder of the Liu Song (also known as 刘宋武帝)

Liu Song   刘宋  First of the Southern Kingdoms

Nanbei Chao   南北朝  The Southern and Northern Kingdoms period

Shibi Village   石壁村  Place in Fujian where the Hakka’s first settled

Yan’an   延安  City in Shaanxi, where the Long March concluded

Zudi  祖地  Ancestral land

Ninghua County  宁化  County in Fujian

Tingzhou   汀洲  Another place not far from Shibi where the Hakka’s first assembled

Changting     Present day name for Tingzhou

Luo Xianglin   祥林  Hakka historian

Kejia Yanjiu Daoliu  客家研究  Luo Xianglin’s 1933 book “An Introduction to the Study of the Hakka’s,”

Huang Chao Uprising  黄巢之乱  Uprising in the late Tang from 881 to 884

Zhao Kuangyin   匡胤  Founder of the Song Dynasty

Kaifeng   开封  Capital of the Northern Song

Lin’an     Capital of Southern Song (present day Hangzhou)

Zheng Chenggong   成功  Taiwan hero, better known as Koxinga

Kangxi emperor   康熙  Long reigning early Qing Dynasty emperor

Qian Hai Ling   遷海令The Great Clearance, or coastal evacuation

Bendi  本地  Also known as the Punt in Cantonese, means Native

Chaozhou  潮州City in Guangdong, above Shantou.  The people are known as Teochew

Shantou    Coastal city in Guangdong adjacent to Chaozhou

Chaoshan   潮汕  Abbreviation for Chaozhou-Shantou

Jieyang  揭阳  Predominantly Hakka city just west of Chaozhou and Shantou.

Yue    Abbreviation for Guangdong

Kejia ren  客家人  A Hakka Person

Meizhou   梅州  City in northeast Guangdong

Biaozhun    a standard

Meixian   Mei County

Yanju Ji   盐焗鸡  Salt Baked Chicken

Niang Doufu   豆腐  The most famous Hakka dish

Tu Kè Xièdòu   土客械斗   The Punti-Hakka Clan Wars from1855 and 1867

Taishan   台山  City known as Toi San.

Qingchao Monian   清朝末年  The final years of the Qing dynasty

Min    Fujian people, also an abbreviation of Fujian

Hong Xiuquan   洪秀全  Responsible for the Taiping Rebellion

Xiang    Abbreviation of Hunan

Han Su-yin  素音  Born in Xinyang, Henan, home of Xinyang Maojian tea. Han Su Yin was the pen name of author Elizabeth Comber

Hsieh T’ing-yu  Historian who wrote The Origin and Migrations of the Hakkas (1929)

Nàxī  西  Ethnic minority group around Lijiang in Yunnan

Tulou   土楼  The circular and square Hakka compounds

Hui     The character “to return”.

Yongding County   永定 County in southern Fujian near Guangdong border

Weilong Wu   围龙  Distinctive single level concentric U-shaped structures

Kejia shange   客家山歌  Hakka mountain folk songs

Leicha   擂茶  Hakka pounded tea

 

Famous Hakka

Deng Xiaoping   小平

Yang Shangkun  尚昆

Lee Kwan Yew   李光耀

Zhu De   朱德

Ye Jianying  

Su Yu  粟裕

Chen Yi  

Hua Guofeng  

Hu Yaobang   胡耀邦

Guo Moruo  郭沫若

Liu Bocheng   刘伯承(maybe)

Nie Rongzhen   荣臻  (maybe)

Zhang Guotao  

Ouyang Xiu   欧阳修

Aw Boon Haw   胡文虎

Aw Boon Par  胡文豹

Chow Yun-fat   润发

Lee Denghui   李登

Charlie Soong   宋嘉

Song Ailing  

Song Qingling庆龄

Song Meiling   宋美

T.V. Soong   宋子文

 

Henan Xinyang Maojian tea  河南信阳毛尖茶

Láoshan  

谢谢温老

 

 

Jemimah Steinfeld:  Little Emperors and Material Girls: Youth and Sex in Modern China

Mary Erbaugh."The Secret History of the Hakkas: The Chinese revolution as a Hakka Enterprise"

University of Pittsburgh Professor and Director of their Asian Studies Center Nicole Constable: Guest People: Hakka Identity in China and Abroad

Direct download: CHP-150-The_History_of_the_Hakka_People.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 9:40am PST

In this final episode of the CHP's ten-part History of Tea series Laszlo travels from province to province introducing the more famous of China's teas.  

The History of Tea Part 10 Terms

 

Pu’er普洱  City in Yunnan famous for Pu’er Tea

Qingming Festival  清明 Grave Sweeping Festival, usually around April 5-6

Shu Pu’er  熟普洱Ripe Pu’er Tea

Wodui  渥堆  The process to speed up the ripening of Pu’er tea

Longjing tea  井茶  The famous green tea from the West Lake area in Hangzhou

Qianlong  乾隆帝  Qing dynasty emperor. No need to get into an detail.

Hugong Temple 胡公Temple in Longjing Village

Shanzhai 山寨  Slang for cheap imitation consumer goods

Maojian   毛尖  “Downy tip” or “Fur tip” tea leaves consisting of a bud and single leaf.

Maofeng   毛峰  The classic bud set consisting of a bud and the two top leaves.

Zhucha  珠茶  “Pearl” Tea or Gunpowder Tea.

Pingshui 平水  Pingshui, just south of Shaoxing 紹興

Huangshan Maofeng  黄山毛峰  The most famous “maofeng” tea from the Huangshan area in Anhui

Huangshan  黄山  One of China’s sacred mountains, located in Anhui

Lu’an  六安  City in Anhui

Lu’an Guapian  六安瓜片  The specialty of Lu’an, Melon Seed Tea

Shanghai Tianshan Chacheng  上海天山茶 A tea shopping center located in Shanghai

Chacheng  茶城  A tea city, the name given to these “tea malls”

Yan cha  岩茶  Rock Tea from the cliffs of Wuyi Shan

Xinyang Maojian  信阳毛尖  The specialty of Henan province, the most northerly grown tea in China.

Jiān   Tip

Tsim Sha Tsui  尖沙咀  The district at the southern tip of Kowloon in Hong Kong

Xishuangbanna  西双版 City in southern Yunnan, ground zero for wild tea trees

Ankang  安康  Prefectural-level city located at the southeast corner of Shaanxi province. Known as the city of folk songs.

Ziyang Maojian  紫阳毛尖茶  Selenium rich tea from Ziyang County in Shaanxi  

    Selenium 

Taiping Houkui  太平猴魁  Tea grown near Huangshan in Anhui

Houkui  猴魁Monkey King

Bai Mudan  白牡丹White Peony tea

Baihao Yinzhen  白毫银针  Silver Needle tea. 

Tieguanyin   铁观Iron Goddess or Iron Buddha Tea named for Guanyin

Anxi  安溪  City in southern Fujian famous for their Tieguanyin Tea

Dancong  单枞The most famous tea coming from Guangdong province

Chaozhou  潮州  City bordering Shantou on the southeast coast of Guangdong

Shantou   City bordering Chaozhou on the southeast coast of Guangdong

Shaxian   County in west central Fujian province famous for, among other things, their snack foods.

Sanming  三明市  city located next to Sha County

Jinjunmei   A kind of black tea from Tongmu Village in Wuyi Shan Fujian

Tongmu Village 桐木村  Village near Wuyi Shanknown as the birthplace of black tea

Rougui  肉桂茶  Another famous and beloved Rock Tea from the Wuyi Shan area

Da Hong Pao  袍茶  “Big Red Robe” tea. One of the greatest and renowned Rock Teas

Tieluohan  铁罗汉茶  Another famous and beloved Rock Tea from the Wuyi Shan area

Shuixian  水仙茶  Another famous and beloved Rock Tea from the Wuyi Shan area

Shui Jin Gui  水金龟茶 Another famous and beloved Rock Tea from the Wuyi Shan area

Bai Ji Guan 冠茶 Another famous and beloved Rock Tea from the Wuyi Shan area

Li Chunsheng 李春生 A Fujianese called Co-father of the Taiwan Tea industry. Left a great legacy in early Taiwan history.

Duyun Maojian  都匀毛尖  Tea from Duyun, Guizhou, about two hours by car west of the capital Guiyang.

Yugou Cha  勾茶  Fish Hook Tea, former name of Duyun Maojian Tea

Guiding Yunwu 贵顶云雾茶  A famous tea of Guizhou Province

Meijiang Cuipian  眉江翠片茶  Another great Guizhou green tea

Liubao六堡  in the eastern part of Guangxi near the border with Guangdong. Famous for their black tea. Particularly popular in Malaysia and among most all Pu’er lovers.

Guiping Xishan tea  桂平西山茶Another great and much loved Guangxi Tea

Gan Lu Tea甘露茶  Sweet Dew Tea, the famous tea of Mengding Shan.

Wu Lizhen  吴理真 Buddhist Monk credited with the cultivation of tea on Mengding Shan.

Mengding Shan  Mountain in Sichuan where tea cultivation began in China

Biancha   Border Tea, tea destined for the markets bordering China. They weren’t choosy.

Renmin Gongyuan  人民公园  Nice park in central Chengdu where you can kick back, drink tea and groove on a little Chengdu traditional culture.

Cháng zuǐ    A long spouted tea pot

Chama Gudao  古道 the Ancient Tea Horse Road

   The old borrowed character for tea

Chá    The character for tea, beginning around Lu Yu’s time in the Tang

Mengding shan Xueya  山雪芽One of the big teas of the Mengding Shan area 

Zhuyeqing  竹叶青茶 A great green tea from the E’Mei Shan area in Sichuan

Qingcheng shan Snow Bud  青城山雪芽茶Another great Sichuan Tea from the Dujiangyan area

E’mei Shan Maofeng  峨眉山毛峰  Yet another great green from Sichuan’s E’Mei Shan region.

E’Mei Shan Bai Ya  峨眉山白牙Same with this one. Another famous Sichuan tea.

Biluochun  碧螺春  “Green Snail Spring” tea from Jiangsu province.

Kangxi  康熙  Grandfather of Qianlong.  Both of these emperors were great partons of imperial tea culture.

Ming Mei tea茗眉茶a.k.a Lady’s Slender Eyebrows Tea, grown in Wuyuan County just east of Jingdezhen and just south of

Wuyuan County  婺源County in Jiangxi famous for, among other things, tea.

Lushan Yunwu  山云  Jiangxi’s famous Lushan Cloud and Mist tea

Jiujiang City  九江City on the western side of Lake Poyang in northwest Jiangxi

Zhu De  朱德  Mao’s oldest comrade and PLA Founder.  A living legend in his time and beloved by the people.

Zhu De's poem about Lushan Yunwu Tea, with Pinyin:

Lúshān yúnwù chá, wèi nóng xìng pōlà, ruò dé chángshí yǐn, yánnián yìshòu fǎ. 

The flavor of Lushan Yunwu tea is strong and intense.  If you drink it for long it is a way to attain longevity.

庐山云雾茶,味浓性泼辣,若得长时饮,延年益寿法

 

Yichang 宜昌  Historic city in southern Hubei

Jingmen  荆门Another ancient Hubei city located north of Yichang

Yuan’an County  远安县County in Hubei. Yichang is the administrative seat. Famous for their Yuan’an Lu Yuan Tea.

Yuan’an Lu Yuan远安鹿苑茶 The local specialty of Hubei Yuan’an County. A famous yellow tea

En’shi Yu Lu  恩施玉露茶  A Hubei green tea from the city of Enshi near the Wufeng Mountains

Junshan Yinzhen  君山银针茶  “Gentleman Mountain Silver Needle Tea”, a yellow tea only found on Junshan Island in Hunan.

Dongting Hu  洞庭湖  Lake Dongting, located in northern Hunan.

Hu   Lake

Nan   South

Bei   North

Ba Shu  巴蜀  The ancient state in Sichuan who brought us tea cultivateon

Tang Taizong  唐太宗   The second emperor of the Tang Dynasty.  Already enough said about him.

 

THE SPIRIT OF TEA, a book and traveling exhibition by tea lover and photographer Matthew London. 

 

This here’s the link:  http://www.spiritoftea.net/CHPto signup for your chance to win a signed BOOK. 

 

“Tea in China: A Religious and Cultural History”by James A. Benn

Link to the book

 

 

Direct download: CHP-149-The_History_of_Tea_Part_10R2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:37pm PST

CHP-148-The History of Tea Part 9

In this penultimate episode of the China History Podcast History of Tea series Laszlo finishes off the story of Robert Fortune and introduces Sir Robert J. Lipton. This CHP long history of Chinese tea started off slow and in this Part 9 fizzles out altogether.  Laszlo also introduces a little overview of Pu-erh Tea as an extra bonus.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

 

Wuyi Mountains  武夷山 The fabled Wuyi Mountains of northern Fujian

Shen Nong    Second of the Three Soveriegns, discoverer of tea and author of the Bencaojing (see below)

Tu    This is what tea used to be called before it became cha

zhenzhu naicha  珍珠奶茶  Boba Milk Tea

Bencaojing  本草 the Classic of Herbal Medicine (attributed to Shen Nong)

Wang Bao王褒  Western Han individual involved in a contract for a servant

Emperor Xuan宣帝 Han Emperor Xuan 

Wu Lizhen吴理真 Buddhist Monk credited with the cultivation of tea on Mengding Shan

Mengding shan    Mountain in Sichuan where tea cultivation began in China

The Shuowen Jiezi  文解字  Han Dynasty dictionary

Ming    Another name for Tea

Er Ya    The first dictionary in China

Guang Ya  广雅  An updated version of the Er Ya

Ba Shu  巴蜀  巴蜀  Ancient state from the Shu Kingdom

Chengdu cai  成都菜  Chengdu style cuisine

Shu Feng Yuan    The Chengdu joint in Rowland Heights preferred by Laszlo

gongcha  tribute tea

Sui  隋朝 The Sui Dynasty

Tang  唐朝  The Tang Dyansty

Lu Yu    Patron Saint of Tea, prominently featured in History of Tea Part 3

Biancha    Border tea….tea that was specially processed and packaged for the border peoples of China

chama gudao  古道 the ancient Tea-Horse Road

Chan Buddhism    Zen Buddhism

Lu Tong  The great poet and bon vivant

Qi Wan Shi  七碗  Lu Tong’s poem Seven Bowls of Tea

Jian ware  建窑  Jian ware

xing ware  邢窑  Xing ware from Hebei

qīngbái  清白 Unique white porcelain of the Song

chaju  茶具  Tea ware

Song  宋朝  The Song Dynasty

Diancha  点茶  To whisk powdered tea

Doucha  斗茶  A tea contest

Charen  茶人  A “tea person”, someone in love with or expert in tea

Cai Xiang  蔡襄  Great calligrapher and tea expert from the Northern Song

Cha Lu  the Record of Tea

Su Shi   苏轼 Famous official, man of letters and all around Hometown Hero of Hangzhou

Su Dongpo  苏东 Su Shi’s other name

Dongpo Rou  坡肉  The dish attributed to Su Dongpo. A tasty Hangzhou specialty

K.S. Lo  桂祥  Dr. K.S. Lo (1910-1995) Vitasoy Founder and passionate Yixing pottery and ceramics collector.

Ming  明朝  Ming Dynasty

Zhu Yuanzhang  朱元璋 the Hongwu Emperor 洪武帝

Zhu Quan  Son of Hongwu Emperor, writer of the Cha Pu (different from the Cai Xiang Cha Pu)

Jingdezhen  景德  Famous historic city in Jiangxi famous for everything produced from their kilns

Yixing     City along Tai Hu in Jiangsu famous for their teapots

Pu Erh  普洱茶  Pu-er tea (written Pu-Er and with an h on the end.)

Oolong  乌龙  Oolong tea

cha dashi  茶大  A Tea master

dìjíshìi    A Prefectural level city….has more authority than other cities their size.

Xishuangbanna  西双版  City in southern Yunnan

Simao  思茅   Temporary name for Pu’er. Now a district of Pu’er City

zisha 紫砂  Purple clay, main ingredient of Yixing teapots

Qingming Holiday  清明 also known as Grave-Sweeping Festival, Usually falls on April 4 or 5

Shanzhai  山寨  a metaphor for a low-end copy-cat products and factories that produces fakes

qi zi bing cha  七子 Seven Sons Tea Cake

cha dao  茶刀  A tea knife

Yìwǔ  易武  City in Yunnan

Yìwū  义乌  City in central Zhejiang, renowned as the center of China’s merchandise wholesale trade

Wuliang  无量山 Mountain area in Yunnan for famous for their Pu-er Tea

Ailao  哀牢山  Mountain area in Yunnan for famous for their Pu-er Tea

Daxue Mountains  大雪山  Mountain area in Yunnan for famous for their Pu-er Tea

Tedian  特点 special point…outstanding characteristic

Sheng Pu’er  生普洱  Raw Pu-er tea that has not ripened yet

Shou Pu’er  熟普洱 Ripe Pu-er tea that has aged naturally over time or spec up through the Wo Dui process.

Wodui  渥堆  A process of speeding up the ripening of raw maocha.

cha nong茶农 A tea farmer

sha qing  杀青  To “kill green”. Heat the tea leaves to deactivate the enzymes

rounian  揉捻  The “rolling” of the tea leaves.

Maocha  毛茶  Pu-er tea in its raw state.  Can be packed at once for sheng pu-er or wòduīprocessed to speed up the ripening.

Kunming Cha Chang  昆明茶厂 the Kunming Tea Factory

Bingcha  饼茶 A tea cake

Tuocha沱茶  Bird nest shaped cakes of Pu-er tea in all kinds of sizes.

hē xibeifēng  喝西北风  To east dust.  To “drink the northwest wind”

gushu  古树 ancient tree 

baojianpin  保健品  Health products

 

Babelcap:  A Chinese Tea Lexicon  http://babelcarp.org/babelcarp/

 

Sarah Rose’s book: For all the Tea in China

 

THE SPIRIT OF TEA, a book and traveling exhibition by tea lover and photographer Matthew London. 

 

This here’s the link:  http://www.spiritoftea.net/CHPto signup for your chance to win a signed print. 

 

Robert Fortune’s Two books:

Three Years' Wanderings in the Northern Provinces of China

A Journey to the Tea Countries of China

 

 

Direct download: CHP-148-The_History_of_Tea_Part_9R.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:05pm PST

CHP-147-The History of Tea Part 8

In this 8th installment of the CHP History of Tea series Laszlo introduces the story of Mr. Robert Fortune.  With Britain’s East India Company bankrolling him, Fortune played a most key role in breaking China’s millennia old monopoly of tea manufacturing and export.  

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Shen Nong神农 One of the all time greats in legendary Chinese history. Discovered tea’s pleasures and passed it on to Chinese civilization

Yuantou    The fountainhead or source

Chaju  茶具  Teaware

Guangcai  广彩  A type of colorful porcelain that was a specialty in Guangzhou

Wuyi Shan  武夷山Wu Yi Mountains in northern Fujian

Lin Zexu    19th century Chinese hero who stood up to the West and burned all the opium in Humen in 1839

Huangshan黄山 Yellow Mountain in southern Anhui, one of the most sacred mountains in China

Bohea  武夷茶One of the early and historic teas of the age of the China Clippers

Congou  工夫One of the early and historic teas of the age of the China Clippers

Souchong小种  Lapsong Souchong Tea (正山小种茶)

Pekoe白毫 One of the early and historic teas of the age of the China Clippers. (See Bai Hao above)

Hyson  熙春茶One of the early and historic teas of the age of the China Clippers, also known as Lucky Dragon Tea

Gunpowder Tea珠茶  A pellet shaped green tea

Longjing cha  井茶  Dragon Well Tea from Longjing Village outside Hangzhou

Qionglai, Sichuan  四川邛 Tea growing city southwest of Chengdu

Gaiwan  盖碗  A covered tea bowl.

Ren duo hao ban shi  人多好 Chairman Mao was credited with saying this…that having a lot of people to do something made the task easier.

 

Sarah Rose’s book: For all the Tea in China

 THE SPIRIT OF TEA, a book and traveling exhibition by tea lover and photographer Matthew London. 

 This here’s the link:  http://www.spiritoftea.net/CHPto signup for your chance to win a signed print. 

Robert Fortunes Two Books:

Three Years' Wanderings in the Northern Provinces of China