The China History Podcast (podcasts)

Many people don't know that the first preaching of Christianity in China pre-dated the Jesuits by more than nine centuries.  We'll take a second cursory look at the Jesuits as part of a bigger story that includes Christianity in China during the Tang and Yuan dynasties.  We'll see that prior to the arrival of Matteo Ricci, there were two other lesser known attempts to grow Christianity in China.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

Āluóběn   阿罗本 Nestorian monk who visited Chang'an in 635 CE

Dàqín Jǐngjiào liúxíng Zhōngguó bēi 大秦景教流行中国碑 "A Monument Commemorating the Propagation of the Dàqín Luminous Religion of China" or "The Story of the Coming of the Religion of Light from the West to China."

Jǐngjiào   景教 Nestorian Christianity

Tiānzhǔjiào   天主教 Roman Catholicism "the religion of the Lord of Heaven"

Dōngzhèngjiào   东正教 Eastern Orthodox “the religion of Eastern Truth”

Jīdūjiào 基督教 Protestantism

Jīdū 基督 Christ

jiào 教 religion or teaching

Xīn Jiào 新教   the New religion

Lǐ Shìmín 李世民 2nd son of Li Yuan, the Tang founder

Táng Tàizōng   唐太宗 Taizong Emperor, formerly known as Li Shimin

Fáng Xuánlíng   房玄龄   Chancellor under Taizong

Zhōu Gōng 周公 Duke of Zhou

Dù Rúhuì   杜如晦 Chancellor under Taizong, colleague of Fang Xuanling

Cháng'ān   长安 Capital of Tang Dynasty China (present day Xian)

Jǐngjìng   景淨 Christian monk who wrote the story of Alopen on the Nestorian Stele

Dàqín 大秦 Rome

Xīān 西安 Capital of Shaanxi province, location of ancient of Chang'an

Jǐngjiào bēi   景教碑 The Nestorian Stele (or Tablet)

bēi 碑 a stele or stone tablet or monument.

Fùpíng County Shaanxi   陕西富平县 Northeast of Xian, the place where the stone came from that the Nestorian Stele was made from. Also the ancestral home of President Xi Jinping.

Bēilín Bówùguǎn   碑林博物馆 The Forest of Monuments Museum in Xian

Xīān Wénchāng Gate   西安文昌门 One of the ancient gates of Xian

Táng Wǔzōng   唐武宗 Tang Emperor from 840-846

Huáng Cháo Uprising   黄巢起义 Uprising lasting 881-884, weakened the Tang Dynasty.

Khanbaliq 汗八里 Capital of Yuan Dynasty China. Present day Beijing

Dàdū   大都 Great Capital...other name for Khanbaliq

Hàn Wǔdì   汉武帝 Western Han emperor from 141-87 BCE

Xiàmén   厦门 Ancient port city in Fujian

Quánzhōu   泉州 Another ancient port city in Fujian

Zhū Yuánzhāng   朱元璋 Ming Dynasty founder, also known as the Hongwu Emperor - reigned 1368-1398

Hóngwǔ Emperor 洪武帝 Zhu Yuanzhang, who came from humble beginnings and founded a dynasty.

Xú Guāngqǐ   徐光启 Also known as Paul Hsu, a colleague of Matteo Ricci

Lǐ Zhīzǎo 李之藻 Along with Xu Guangqi and Yang Tingyun, he was one of the Three Pillars of Catholicism in China.

Yáng Tíngyún  杨廷筠 One of the Three Pillars of Catholicism in China

Dorgan   多尔衮 Prince Regent during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor

Shùnzhì   顺治 1st Qing Emperor to rule over China 1643-1661

Kāngxī   康熙 Successor to Shunzhi, the longest reigning Chinese emperor 1661-1722

Yōngzhèng 雍正 Successor to the Kangxi Emperor

Luō Guànzhōng  罗贯中  Author of the classic novel "Romance of the Three Kingdoms

 

MATT SHEEHAN'S CHINAFORNIA NEWSLETTER - CHECK IT OUT HERE

 

JOHN ZHU'S THREE KINGDOMS PODCAST - Click here and check it out

 

Click here for Laszlo's past episode CHP-098-Ricci, Schall von Bell and Verbiest

 

Direct download: CHP-180-The_Earliest_Years_of_Christianity_in_China.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 2:40pm EDT

CHP-175-Su Dongpo

In this 175th episode Laszlo gives the great Northern Song jack-of-all-literary-trades Su Dongpo the once over. This isn't meant to be a deep dive into the reasons for all his renown in literature, calligraphy and painting. Instead, this is just a "popular Chinese historical" overview of who he was and the times he lived in.  And for those who never heard of him, this is a good intro. In America we have Washington Irving, Mark Twain, Hemingway and so on. In China....Su Shi would be mentioned when rattling off their best of the best. He was definitely a major guy not only in the Song, but in the overall world of Chinese culture as well.  The list of terms from this episode is particularly long this time.  You can see them below in the approximate order of their mention.  If you're interested to check out some of his poetry, here's an amazon link to a book of his poems translated by Burton Watson: Selected Poems of Su T'ung-P'o

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

 Ouyang Xiu 欧阳修 1007-1072 Northern Song statesman, historian, calligrapher, literatus extraordinaire

Wang Xizhi   王羲之 Called arguably the greatest Chinese calligrapher

Zhou   周 1046 BCE - 256 BCE Ancient dynasty of China

Han   汉   206 BCE - 220 CE Ancient dynasty of China

Jin   晋 265-420 Ancient dynasty of China

Sui   隋 581-618 Ancient dynasty of China

Tang 唐 618-907 Ancient dynasty of China

Song   宋 960-1279 Ancient dynasty of China

Kaifeng   开封 Capital of the Northern Song dynasty 960-1127

Northern Song 北宋 960-1127

Huizong   徽宗 The Northern Song emperor who "lost China" to the Jürchens

Su Dongpo   苏东坡 1037 - 1101 Our subject in this episode

Su Shi   苏轼 Su Dongpo's birth name

Tang Song Ba Da Jia   唐宋八大家 "Eight Great Men of Letters of the Tang and Song Dynasty

Han Yu   韩愈 768-824 - Tang essayist and poet. Major influence in development of Chinese literature

Liu Zongyuan 柳宗元 773-819 Tang waster of prose and poetry

Su Xun 苏洵 1009-1066 - Great man of letters and Father of Su Shi and Su Zhe

Su Zhe 苏辙   1039-1112 - Brother of Su Shi, also a great man of letters

Wang Anshi   王安石 1021-1086 - Song statesman and father of far reaching reforms. Also a great literary figure in his day.

Zeng Gong   曾鞏 1019-1083 - Great prose master of the Song

Hangzhou   杭州 Capital of Zhejiang and of dynasties past. Su Dongpo served there twice

Zhejiang   浙江 Province in east China

Meishan   眉山 City south of Chengdu, birthplace of the Three Su's, Su Xun, Su Dongpo and Su Zhe.

Min River 岷江 Yangzi tributary river in Sichuan, famous for the Duijangyan irrigation system

Leshan 乐山 City in Sichuan

Ya'an   雅安 Great tea city near Chengdu in Sichuan

Chengdu   成都 Ancient capital of Shu Kingdom, now capital of Sichuan

jinshi   进士   The highest degree that allowed you to fill the top positions in government

Wang Fu 王弗 1039-1065 - First wife of Su Dongpo

Henan  河南 Province in north China where it all began

doucha   斗茶 "Tea Battles" that were popular during the Song

Wang Runzhi   王闰之 1048-1093 2nd wife of Su Dongpo

Su Di   苏堤 the Su Causeway across West Lake in Hangzhou

Xin Fa   新法 The New Policies championed by the Shenzong Emperor and Wang Anshi

Shenzong    神宗 1048-1085 - Northern Song Emperor and Wang Anshi supporter

Sima Guang   司马光 1019-1086 Conservative Song scholar and official, writer of the Zizhi Tongijan

Luoyang   洛阳 City in Henan and former ancient capital of past dynasties.

Cheng Yi 程颐  One of the pride of Luoyang, Chinese philosopher

Zizhi Tongjian, the "Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance" A monumental historical work covering Chinese history from 403 BCE to 959 CE

Wutai Poem Incident 乌台诗案 In 1079, a poem by Su Shi got him in trouble and exiled fron the capital.

Huangzhou 黄州 Former name of Huanggang, now a district of that city

Hubei   湖北 Central province in China, capital is at Wuhan

Huanggang   黄冈 City just east of Wuhan in Hubei Province

Dongpo 东坡 Eastern slope

Dongpo Jushi 东坡居士 Dongpo, the retired scholar or Buddhist.

Chibi Fu   赤壁赋 Ode to Red Cliffs, famous poem by Su Shi

Hou Chibi Fu   后赤壁赋   The Later Ode to Red Cliffs, famous poem by Su Shi

Nian Nujiao Chibi Huaigu 念奴娇赤壁怀古 Remembering Chibi, Su Shi's third poem in this series about Red Cliffs

Zhuge Liang   诸葛亮 Great Shu-Han strategist during Three Kingdoms Period

Lu Su 鲁肃 Politician and general who worked for Sun Quan

Zhou Yu 周瑜 One of Sun Quan's main generals

Cheng Pu 程普 Another of Sun Quan's main generals

Sun Quan 孙权 Emperor of Eastern Wu, one of the Three Kingdoms

Liu Bei   刘备 Emperor of Shu Han, one of the Three Kingdoms

Cao Cao   曹操 King of Wei, one of the Three Kingdoms

Fu 赋 One of the three main types of Chinese Poetry, like rhymed prose

Ci 词 One of the three main types of Chinese Poetry, like lyric poetry

Han Shi Tie 寒食帖 Su Shi's most famous calligraphic work, now hanging in the National Palace Museum in Taipei

Huang Tingjian   黄庭坚 1045-1105 artist, scholar, official, a great Northern Song Master

Mi Fu 米芾 1051-1107 Great Song painter and calligrapher

Cai Xiang   蔡襄 1012-1067 One of the great calligraphers of the Northern Song

Song Si Jia 宋四家 the Four Great Calligraphers of the Song

Han Shi 寒食 is the holiday that occurs right before Qingming in April

Yan Zhenqing 颜真卿 708-785 Great calligrapher of the Tang and one of the greatest of all time

Zhezong 哲宗 Northern Song emperor, Reigned 1085-1100

Empress Dowager Gao 高太皇后 1032-1093 Empress of Northern Song emperor Yingzong, regent for Zhezong during his minority.

Dongpo Rou 东坡肉 Dongpo Pork

Zuo Zongtang 左宗棠   Hunan-born general from the Qing, the man who brought us General Tso's Chicken

Lou Wai Lou 楼外楼 Not the best restaurant in Hangzhou but one of the most famous. Been around over one hundred fifty years

Ni Zan, the late Yuan-early Ming painter.

Xu Wei, the Ming painter

Yuan Mei, the Qing dynasty scholar and artist.

Yuanyou era 元祐 Conservative era in Emperor Zhezong's reign that lasted 1086 to 1093

Huizhou 惠州 City in Guangdong where Su Dongpo served a stint

Hainan   海南 Island province off the coast of Guangdong

Danzhou   儋州 Coastal city in Hainan just west of Haikou

Haikou   海口 Capital city of Hainan

Dongpo Shuyuan   东坡书院

Wang Zhaoyun   王朝云 1062-1095 - 3rd wife of Su Dongpo

Changzhou   常州 City in Jiangsu

Jiangsu   江苏 Coastal province just north of Zhejiang

Cai Jing   蔡京 Long serving chancellor to Emperor Huizong

Cai Tao 蔡绦 Son of Cai Jing who had the audacity to say something nice about Su Dongpo

Shi 诗 The word meaning all Chinese poetry but also a specific kind as well.

Su Men Si Xueshi 苏门四学士 The Four Scholars at Su Shi's Gate

Zhang Lei   张耒 1054-1114 One of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Chao Buzhi 晁补之 One of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Qin Guan   秦观 1049-1100 - Northern Song writer and poet. Also one of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Jin 金朝 The Jin Dynasty of the Jürchens 1115-1234

 

Direct download: CHP-175-Su_Dongpo.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 5:51pm EDT

CHP-174-The Pirate Queen Zheng Yi Sao

In this latest episode Laszlo finally gets around to the oft requested subject of piracy in early 19th century China.  Pirates had been a fact of life going back to the most olden days. Mid to late Qing Dynasty the amount of trade being plied on the China coast attracted pirates like never before.  Zheng Yi Sao ("Zheng Yi's Wife") was a tough woman from the Pearl River Delta who married the most notorious pirate of his day Zheng Yi.  Upon Zheng Yi's death, his widow took control of his massive pirate fleet.  With her adopted son, and later husband Cheung Po Tsai, she controlled what as, at the time, the largest pirate fleet that preyed on coastal dwellers and vessels engaged in trade. She later became an inspiration for many characters that appeared in books, movies, video games and other media.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Zheng Shi 郑氏 Madame Zheng, Widow Zheng

Zheng Yi Sao 郑一嫂 Zheng Yi Sao, wife of Zheng Yi

haidao   海盗 pirate

Zhejiang   浙江 East coast province of China

Guangdong   广东  Southernmost province of continental China

Tây Sơn Rebellion   Major uprising in Vietnam from 1770 to 1802

Binh Dinh Province   South central coastal province in Vietnam

Da Nang   Vietnam's 3rd largest city

Nha Trang   Coastal city in Vietnam

Xishan   西山 West Mountain (Tây Sơn in Vietnamese)

Guangxi   广西 One province over from Guangdong

Shi   石 Common Chinese surname, means stone

Ma 马Another common Chinese surname, means horse

Xu   徐 Common Chinese surname. I always get it mixed up with 许.

Shi Xianggu   石香姑 Zheng Yi Sao's real name

Xinhui   新会 City near Jiangmen

Tanka or Danjia   疍家 The boat dwelling people of south China and Fujian

shuishang ren 水上人 people who live on the water

Zheng Yi   郑一 South Seas pirate who ran the Red Flag Fleet. Married Shi Xianggu

Red Flag Fleet  红旗帮 Hóngqí Bāng.

Cheung Po Tsai  张保仔 Zhang Bâozâi

Jing Hai fen ji  靖海氛记 Charles F. Neumann's "The Pirates who Infested the China Sea from 1807 to 1810.

Jiaqing emperor   嘉庆帝 Qing emperor 1796 - 1820

Daoguang emperor   道光帝 Qing emperor 1820 - 1850

Ming Jiajing Emperor   明嘉靖帝 Ming emperor 1521 - 1567

Lantau 大屿山 Island that is part of the Hong Kong SAR

Cheung Chau  - Changzhou 长洲 Island off the coast of Lantau

Humen  虎门 Located at the mouth of the Pearl River Delta

Chow Yun-fat  周润发 Great Actor who played Sau Feng, one of the Pirate Lords from Disney's P of the C movie Part 3.

Qiongzhou Strait 琼州海峡 Body of water that separates Hainan from Guangdong

 

 

Direct download: CHP-174-The_Pirate_Queen_Zheng_Yi_Sao.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:35pm EDT

CHP-173- The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 3

Laszlo offers up the exciting conclusion to the 3-part series introducing the Tong Wars.  

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

Wanguo Jinyanhui huizhi 万国禁烟会会址 Meeting place of the International Opium Commission

weiji   危机   A crisis

Charlie Boston 李观长 One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Tom Lee  李希龄  Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

Xinhai Revolution   辛亥革命   The event that toppled the Qing Dynasty in 1911.

Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. Directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence.

Chong Pon Sing   The president of the Hip Sings, bumped off by the On Leongs

Yee Toy 余才 A Hip Sing soldier involved in a few of their most daring hits

Gin Gum   Another high ranking On Leong and later right hand man to Tom Lee

Kim Lan Association   金兰公所 A part of the Chee Kung Tong (Hongmen) made up of mostly Hip Sings

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations

Fong Foo Leung   the Hip Sing national president

Chin Jack Lem   An On Leong whose defection to the Hip Sings sparked a Tong War

zhi baobuzhu huo   纸包不住火 An old Chinese saying that says "paper can't wrap a fire"

Zhongguo Huiguan 中国会馆 The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association...

Lee Gee Min  Officer for the On Leong’s

Wong Get 黄傑 A Hip Sing everyman...Used by reforming politicians to rat out the On Leongs and by his fellow Hip Sing tong brothers to make things difficult for the On Leongs.

Frank Moy   head of the Chicago branch of the On Leong’s

Tung On Society 东安会馆 Another society made up mostly of seamen

Jiu Yi Ba  九一八 the Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931.

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

 

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

 

The Tong Wars book home page

 

Article from Signature Magazine that explains the Turf Wars in NY Chinatown .

 

 

 

 

 

Direct download: CHP-173-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_3.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:54pm EDT

CHP-172-The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 2

In this Part 2 episode the Tong Wars begin in earnest.  The first and second Tong Wars are discussed.  

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

The Tong Wars book home page

Article from Signature Magazine that explains the Turf Wars in NY Chinatown

 

"Wish Lanterns - Young Lives in New China"

Alec Ash - UK Amazon link to Wish Lanterns

 

21st Century China Program - UC San Diego

Link to their Website

Link to the China 21 Podcast

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Lung Kin was a Hip Sing member who was the first to get shot in the First Tong War

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

Gong Wing Chung The On Leong soldier charged with Lung Kin's murder

Sin Cue An On Leong, first a suspect in a 1900 murder and later a victim of a Hip Sing hit to prevent him from testifying against Mock Duck

Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. Directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence.

Tom Lee  李希龄  Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Sue Sing   a Hip Sing charged with the murder of Ah Fee, got sentenced to life in the Sing Sing Correctional Facility

Lee Sing An On Leong highbinder from Dedham, Massachusetts. Tried to bump off Mock Duck in 1904.

Zhongguo Huiguan 中国会馆 The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association

Charlie Boston 李观长 One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Chu Gong 赵昂 High ranking On Leong officer

Gin Gum   Another high ranking On Leong and later right hand man to Tom Lee

Hop Lee A Hip Sing laundryman brutally killed by the On Leongs in a retaliation murder.

Shah Kai-fu 夏偕复The Chinese Consul based in the US.

mo mentai, mo mentai 没问题,没问题 Cantonese for no problem, no problem

boo-how-doy / futou zai 斧头仔 Term was used to describe hatchet men contracted from out of town. Also another name for a highbinder.

Leon Ling Charged with the murder of Bow Kum but escaped and was never found.

Chu Gain Proprietor of The Port Arthur Restaurant who was carrying on with Bow Kum at the time of her murder.

Lung Kong Tin Yee Gong Shaw / Longgang Qinyi Gongsuo 龙岗亲义公所Early name of the Four Brothers Society

See Sing Tong / The Sixing Tang 四姓堂 The Four Surnames Society

Sixing 四姓Four surnames.

Lau / Liu 刘 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Kwan / Guan 关 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Cheung / Zhang 张 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Chu / Zhao 赵 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations


Bow Kum 包金(?) A China-born consort whose murder in 1909 sparked the Second Tong War between the On Leongs and the Four Brothers Society. 

Lau Tong Four Brothers member charged with the murder of Bow Kum

Lau Shong Four Brothers member charged with the murder of Bow Kum

Gun Kee Four Brothers member shot and wounded in front of On Leong headquarters by a cousin of Tom Lee.


Ah Hoon   An On Leong who was also a Four Brothers member. A well known comedian in his day. Shot and killed in 1909. 

fan tan 番摊 The game of games for Chinatown gamblers...a game of skill and guessing. Also called Chinese Roulette.

pi-gow 牌九 A Chinese domino-based game of chance

Direct download: CHP-172-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_2.1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 10:30pm EDT

CHP-171-The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 1

In this long awaited and oft requested episode Laszlo explains about the Tong Wars of New York's Chinatown. With the help of Scott Seligman's latest book we go back to late 19th - early 20th century America and focus on New York's Chinatown.  These were terribly unpleasant days for most citizens of Chinese ancestry and especially for those immigrants who either had not begun the process or lived in the shadows illegally. The Chinese Exclusion Laws tarred these citizens like no other immigrant group in US history. The Tong Wars didn't happen because of these laws but they were certainly part of the story.  With everything Chinese-Americans have done to make America great over the past century it's interesting to look back at another time when the ordinary law abiding Chinese and the bloodiest tong soldier were equally reviled in society that was loath to accept them. The book is called "Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown" by Scott D. Seligman.

Terms from this Episode

Qing Chao monian 清朝末年The last years of the Qing Dynasty

Mao Zedong 毛泽东   Chairman Mao

Shaoshan 韶山   Birthplace of Chairman Mao, in Hunan

Toisan   台山 City in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Hoiping   开平 Another city in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Sun-wui   新会 Another city in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Wong Chin Foo   王清福 First to use the term Chinese American. His life was featured in CHP episode 136.

Wo Kee Early Chinatown Merchant also known as Wong Ah Chung

Wong Ah Chung Real name (maybe) of the "pre-Tom Lee" Chinatown personality known as Wo Kee

Wung Ah Ling 李希 (Tom Lee) Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Loon Yee Tong 联谊堂 Cantonese for the Lianyi Tang a.k.a. Chee Kung Tong (致公堂) Society that went back to the Qing dynasty///also known as The Chinese Masons and The Hongmen

Lianyi Tang   联谊堂 Mandarin pronunciation of the Loon Yee Tong

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations

Lee Sing 利胜 Chinatown merchant on Pell who publicly assaulted Tom Lee and got away with it

fan tan 番摊 The game of games for Chinatown gamblers...a game of skill and guessing. Also called Chinese Roulette.

pi-gow 牌九 A Chinese domino-based game of chance

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

An Liang Tang   安良堂 Mandarin pronunciation of the On Leong Tong

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

Xie Sheng Tang   协勝堂 Hip Sing in Mandarin

Lee Toy   李彩 Tom Lee's nephew and chief tough guy in the On Leongs

Lee Quon Jung 李观长 a.k.a. Charlie Boston One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Yuet Sing Another wealthy On Leong merchant in Chinatown 

Wong Get 黄傑 A Hip Sing everyman...Used by reforming politicians to rat out the On Leongs and by his fellow Hip Sing tong brothers to make things difficult for the On Leongs.

Mai De a.k.a. Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. A slippery as an eel and hard to pin down by the authorities...directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence

Lung Kin was a Hip Sing member who was the first to get shot in the First Tong War

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

 

The Tong Wars book home page

 

"Wish Lanterns - Young Lives in New China"

Alec Ash - UK Amazon link to Wish Lanterns

 

supchina.com - New Home of the great Sinica Podcast and a wonderful place to stay in daily touch with what's up in China.

 

Direct download: CHP-171-The_Tong_Wars_of_NY_Chinatown_Part_1R.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:14am EDT

Laszlo finishes up the story of the Yuan Dynasty, founded in 1271.  The parts of China not yet conquered were done in by 1276 and the last holdouts gone by 1279.  But the Great Yuan didn't last long.  This episode takes a nice little overview of the dynasty, its slow demise and the legacy they left.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty

Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan

Golden Horde  金帐汗国   Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.

Arigh Böke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai

Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan

Zhao   赵   The surname of the Song dynasty ruling family

Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire

Zhengding   正定 A place adjacent to Shijiazhuang, site of Kublai Khan's mother's appanage.

Shijiazhuang   石家庄 Capital of Hebei Province

Hebei   河北 Province in northern China

Zhongtong Era   中统 Era during the Yuan 1260-1264

Zhiyuan Era 至元 Era during the Yuan 1264-1294

Jin Dynasty  金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda

Haiyun Chan Shi 海运禅师 Buddhist advisor to Kublai Khan

Liu Bingzhong   刘秉忠 Advisor to Kublai Khan on all matters architectural, feng shui and other things

Khitans   契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125

Kaiping 开平 Original name of Shangdu

Shangdu   上都 Known popularly as Xanadu, later became Kublai's summer palace

Chengde   承德 Better known in old history books as Jehol or Rehe, city northwest of Beijing

Hülegü 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui

Dadu  大都 Kublai Khan capital, also known as Khanbaliq, City of the Khan's, located in present day Beijing

Zhu Yuanzhang   朱元璋 Ming Dynasty founder

Karakorum  喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260, originally built by Ogedai Khan

Shandong   山东 Coastal province in the north, famous for a million things including Confucius

Li Tan 李璮 Loyal Yuan official up in Shandong who later led a rebellion against Mongol rule in China.

Shi Tianze   石天泽 One of Kublai Khan's most loyal and successful Han Chinese generals

Duke of Zhou   周公 Son of the Zhou Dynasty founder King Wen, brother to King Wu

Taizong   太宗 Co-founder of the Tang Dynasty, also known as Li Shimin

Han Wudi   汉武帝 Great conquering Han Dynasty emperor

Liu Bei   刘备 Mighty hero during the Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period. Founder of the Shu Han State.

Lantau Island   大屿山 Hong Kong's largest island, the international airport is located there

Zhao Kuangyin   赵匡胤 Song dynasty founder

Lizong   理宗   Southern Song emperor 1224-1264 Not a terribly good one.

Emperor Yang of the Sui   隋炀帝 Son of Sui Dynasty founder and final emperor of the Sui. Did some good and some bad. Had a lot of concubines

Empress Dowager Xie

Duzong emperor 度宗 Southern Song emperor from 1264 to 1274

Jia Sidao   贾似道 Southern Song chancellor

Aju  阿术 General and high ranking official during the Yuan. Grandson of Subotei

Subotei  速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.

Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.

Bayan of the Baarin 伯颜   Kublai's greatest general

Han Jiang   汉江 Tributary of the Yangzi flows from Shaanxi to Hubei

Hanshui   汉水 Another name for the Han JIang

Hubei ren   湖北人 Someone from Hubei

Wuchang   武昌 The city that makes up the Wu in Wuhan

Hankou   汉口 The city that makes the Han in Wuhan

Hanyang   汉阳 The third city of the Wuhan metropolitan area

Nanjing   南京 Ming Dynasty capital, also known as the ancient city of Jiankang

Jiankang   建康 Ancient name for Nanjing

Qiantang River   钱塘江   the southern terminus of the Grand Canal, flowed through Hangzhou

Xiangyang   襄阳 City in Hubei opposite the Han Shui from Fancheng

Fancheng  樊城   City in Hubei opposite the Han Shui from Xiangyang

Xiangfan   襄樊 The twin cities of Xiangyang and Fancheng

Hui Hui Pao   回回炮 "Muslim trebuchet"

Cai Jing   蔡京 Huizong's main official, great calligrapher, not terribly popular in his last years

Emperor Gong  恭帝  Southern Song emperor from 1274 to 1276

Changzhou   常州   City in Jiangsu who felt the wrath of the Khan

Huizong 徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song

Duanzong 端宗   Second to the last Southern Song emperor, died age 8

Lu Xiufu   陆秀夫   Official and Military man who served the Song dynasty till the last

Zhao Bing   赵昺   Last emperor of the Southern Song, also known as Huaizong

Huaizong   怀宗   Last Song emperor, also known as Zhao Bing

Hubilie 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.

Yunnan   云南   Southwestern province in China

Empress Chabi 察必皇后   favorite wife of Kublai Khan

Zhenjin   真金   Son of Kublai Khan, died before he succeeded his father as emperor

Shizu   世祖   Posthumous temple name of Kublai Khan

Temür Khan 完泽笃汗 Son of Zhenjin, later became the Chengzong emperor

Chengzong emperor   成宗   Succeeded Kublai Khan as Yuan Emperor

Külüg Khan  曲律汗 Also known as the Wuzong emperor

Wuzong emperor  武宗   Yuan emperor 1307-1311

Buyantu Khan   普颜笃汗 Also known as the Renzong Emperor

Renzong emperor 仁宗 Yuan Emperor 1311-1320, champion of Confucianists.

Zhu Xi   朱熹 Great Chinese philosopher, father of Neo-Confucianism

Si Shu 四书 the Four Books

The Lunyu   论语 The Analects

Mengzi   孟子 The Mencius

Daxue   大学 The Great Learning

Zhongyong  中庸 The Doctrine of the Mean

I Ching   易经 The Book of Changes. People swear by it.

Yingzong emperor   英宗   Yuan Dynasty emperor 1320-1323

Temuder   铁木迭儿 Yuan grand councillar during Yingzong

Taiding Emperor 泰定帝 Yuan emperor 1323-1328

Liangdu zhi zhan   两都之战   War of the Two Capitals

Toghon Temür 妥懽帖睦尔Mongolian name of Yuan emperor Shun

Emperor Shun   顺帝 Yuan emperor

Shun  舜  Last of the mythical Five Emperors, lived around 2200 BC

Yu the Great   大禹 Founder of the Xia Dynasty

Poyang Hu zhizhan   鄱阳湖之战 the Battle of Poyang Lake

Hongwu Emperor   洪武帝 Era name chosen by Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming dynasty

Liu Bang   刘邦 A.K.A. Han Gaozu, founder of the Han Dynasty

Longquan   龙泉 Ancient site near Lishui where some of the best porcelain ware in China was fired.

Lishui   丽水 City in southern Zhejiang

Jingdezhen   景德镇   The historic porcelain capital of China.

Zheng He   郑和 The Yongle Emperor's loyal admiral who led seven voyages to the west that went as far as the east coast of Africa

Wu Cheng 吴澄   Great Yuan dynasty scholar-official and student of Zhu Xi's philosophy

Guo Shoujing 郭守敬   Great Yuan dynasty scholar, scientist, engineer. The "Tycho Brahe of China"

Zhao Mengfu   赵孟頫   Great Yuan era painter, descended from the Song royal family, married to Guan Daosheng.  

Guan Daosheng   管道昇   Called "China's greatest female painter". Married to Zhao Mengfu...an amazing couple in their day

Liu Guandao   刘贯道   Another great Yuan dynasty painter

  

Alec Ash's new book: Wish Lanterns: Young Lives in New China

 

Barbarians at the Gate Podcast: Get it H E R E at Jeremiah's Granite Studio page.

 

David Moser's "A Billion Voices: China's Search for a Common Language"

 

And check out Sixth Tone at http://www.sixthtone.com/

 

Direct download: CHP-170-The_Mongol_Yuan_Dynasty_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:20am EDT

CHP-169-The Mongol Yuan Dynasty Part 1

In this long overdue episode with a deceiving title we don't actually get around to the Yuan Dynasty.  However a nice handy and confusing overview tracing the rise of the Mongol nation is presented which includes a bio on Genghis Khan.  We'll get to rise of Kublai Khan this time and look at the Yuan Dynasty next episode.  

 

Terms from this Episode

numero ciento sesenta y nueve Number 169

Qin Shihuang 秦始皇 Qin Dynasty founder

Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty

Parthians 帕提亚  Iranian nomadic people

Scythians   斯基泰人 Iranian nomadic people

Yuezhi 月氏 Originally from Xinjiang and Gansu, defeated by the Xiongnu

Goths 哥特 West central Asian power, the scourge of the Roman Empire

Magyars   马扎儿人 West central Asian power. Today they are known as Hungarians.

Huns 匈奴 More from the western part of the steppe, often confused with Xiongnu

Xiongnu 匈奴 Often called Huns, they were an early northern tribe who kept invading China

Slavs   斯拉夫人 People from central Europe and the West Asian steppe

Xianbei 鲜卑   So-called "proto-Mongols" who lived around the Qin and Han dynasties and founded the Northern Wei.

Shatuo Turks  沙陀突厥  Power in north China late 9th and 10th century. Founded several short-lived dynasties in the north of China.

Khitans 契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125

Tatars 鞑靼人 Mongol tribe defeated by Genghis Khan who later moved westward towards Russia and Europe

Kazakhs   哈萨克人 North-Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

Kyrgyz  吉尔吉斯  Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kyrgyzstan

Uighurs   维吾尔人   Turkic people who today mostly live in Xinjiang

The Hakkas 客家人 The Hakka People

Fujian 福建   Province on the east coast of China

Huizong   徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song

Aguda 阿骨打 Also known as Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jin Dynasty

Wuqimai 吴乞买 Aguda's brother, second emperor of the Jin

Kaifeng 开封 Capital of the Northern Song Dynasty

Jin Dynasty  金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda

Zhao Gou   赵构 Escaped Zhao royal family member, launched Southern Song

Gaozong 高宗 First emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty

Lin'an 临安 Southern Song capital, present day Hangzhou

Merkits  蔑儿乞人 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Keraits  怯烈亦 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongüts  汪古部 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongirats  One of many tribes of the Mongols

Naimans 乃蛮 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Temüjin 铁木真 Genghis Khan's name

Dobun Known as Dobun the Clever, married to Alan the Fair, early ancestors of Temujin

Ah-Lan the Fair married to Dobun, early ancestors of Temujin

Khaidu 海都 c. 1040-1100 Great-grandfather of Khabul Khan

Khabul Khan  合不勒  Early great khan and great -grandfather of Genghis Khan

Yesugei the Brave 孛儿只斤Ÿ也速该 Father of Genghis Khan

Yuanchao Mi Shi 元朝秘史 The Secret History of the Mongols

Börte 孛儿帖 Wife of Temüjin and later Grand Empress of the Mongol Empire

Ulaan Bator 乌兰巴托 Capital of Mongolia

Jochi 术赤 Oldest son of Börte and maybe Genghis Khan

Golden Horde 金帐汗国  Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.

Xinjiang   新疆 Northwest autonomous region in China

Mongol Yasa (Jasagh)   A Mongol Codified law introduced by Genghis Khan

Khuriltai 忽里勒台   A Mongol congress of all elders and leaders

Kara Khitai 喀喇契丹 Also known as the Western Liao 1124-1218

Xixia  西夏 The Western Xia, an empire established by the Tanguts

Khwarizmian Empire 花剌子模王国 Lasted 1077-1231. Khwarazmia covered All of Iran and parts of Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan.

Batu 拔都 Founder of Golden Horde, son of Jochi, grandson of Genghis Khan

Chaghadai 蔡合台 Second son of Genghis Khan, founder of Khanate of Chaghadai

Khanate of Chaghadai 蔡合台汗国 Covered most of Central Asia

Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire

Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan

Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan

Kublai 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.

Hulagu 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui

Arigh Boke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai

Subotei 速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.

Dzungaria 准噶尔 Northern half of Xinjiang with Tianshan Mountains south and the Altai north.

Karakorum 喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260

Guyuk 贵由 Eldest son of Ogedai Khan, reigned only two years as the 3rd Great Khan

Mamluks 马木留克 Originally slave soldiers, they were a powerful "caste" of warriors who operated from the 9th to 19th centuries. Not to be messed with.

Il-khanate 伊儿汗国  The southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire. Ruled by Hülagü's branch of the family - centered around Iran

Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.

Owen Lattimore 欧文Ÿ拉铁摩尔 American scholar and Central Asian specialist

 

Isaac Meyer:  History of Japan Podcast

https://historyofjapan.wordpress.com/

 

Nina Xiang: "China Money Network"

http://www.chinamoneynetwork.com/

 

Direct download: CHP-169-The_Mongol_Yuan_Dynasty_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:10pm EDT

CHP-168-Zhou Enlai Part 8

In this bonus one hour plus episode we look at the last six years of Zhou Enlai's life. It was a bittersweet end for Premier Zhou.  In between doing great things for China and guiding the country's general well-being he was forced to play a central role in some of the worst internecine politics in CCP history.  

Terms from this episode

Sun Weishi   孙维世 Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao's adopted daughter

Jiang Qing   江青   Wife of Mao Zedong, Gang of Fouyr leader

Lin Biao   林彪   Revolutionary hero, great general, Mao chosen successor

Chen Yi   陈毅   Another great military leader, later foreign minister

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   State Chairman (title changed to president in 1982), main target of Cultural Revolution

Chen Boda   陈伯达 Former secretary, speechwriter to Mao

Zhang Chunqiao   张春桥 Political theoretician, later member of the Gang of Four

Yao Wenyuan   姚文元 Prominent writer, critic...wrote the initial critique of Wu Han's play that kicked off the Cultural Revolution

Lushan   庐山 Scenic spot in northern Jiangxi, site of many historic meetings

Poyang Lake   鄱阳湖   China's largest freshwater lake

Jiangxi Province   江西 Province in eastern China

Xian Incident   西安事变   October 12, 1936 kidnapping of Chiang Kai-shek

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀   Great military leader, destroyed by Mao at Lushan in 1959 due to criticism of the Great Leap Forward

Zhuang Zedong   庄则栋   One of China's greatest table tennis champions

Wu Faxian   吴法宪   Former Air Force commander, staunch Lin Biao supporter

Ye Qun   叶群 Wife of Lin Biao

Lin Liguo   林立果   Son of Lin Biao, main planner of the attempted coup of Lin Biao

Beidaihe   北戴河   Beach resort near Qinhuangdao, Hebei province, popularly used as a Party retreat for informal meetings

Shanhaiguan   山海关 Historic district near to Beidaihe and Qinhuangdao

"Tian yao xia yu, niang yao jia ren, wufa keshe, you ta qu ba!"   天要下雨,娘要嫁人,无法可设,由他去吧   the heavens must rain and a woman wants to be wed....nothing can be done about this....let him go."

Zunyi Conference   遵义会议 Historic CCP conference in January 1935 in which Mao and Bo Gu fought for supremacy

Zhongnanhai   中南海   Government leadership compound adjacent to the Forbidden City

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超 Wife of Zhou Enlai, later chairperson of the CPPCC

Wumao's   五毛党   People in the Party's employ responsible for flooding the internet with pro-Party comments in an effort to sway public opinion.

Wang Hairong   王海容 Mao's grand niece and later vice minister of the Foreign Ministry

Nancy Tang Wensheng   唐文生 Mao's English interpreter

Wang Hongwen   王洪文 Young, unknown Shanghai radical hand picked by Mao to be his successor

Xinjian County Tractor Factory   新建县拖拉机厂 Factory outside Nanchang where Deng Xiaoping was sent to work after his first political purge ion 1969

Nanchang   南昌 Capital of Jiangxi province

Pi Lin Pi Kong   批林批孔运动 The Criticize Lin Biao, Criticize Confucius Campaign

Ye Jianying   叶剑英 Great PLA general, great leader, rose to the occasion at several key moments in China history

Luo Ruiqing   罗瑞卿   Popular general, early victim of the Cultural Revolution

Mao Yuanxin   毛远新   Mao's nephew, son of his younger brother Mao Zemin

Sige Xiandaihua   四个现代化   The Four Modernizations

Hua Guofeng   华国锋 named as acting Premier to replace Zhou, later Party Chairman

Zhu De   朱德 PLA founder, great general and comrade of Mao

Tangshan   唐山   City in Hebei, just east of Beijing, epicenter of the great earthquake of 1976

Li Xiannian   李先念   Great military and political leader, later President of Chian 1983-88

Wang Dongxing   汪东兴 Mao's bodyguard during the Cultural Revolution years. Commander of the 8341 Special Regiment

Gaige kaifang   改革开放 The policy of reform and opening up to the outside world.

Direct download: CHP-168-Zhou_Enlai_Part_8.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:36pm EDT

CHP-167-Zhou Enlai Part 7

In this longer than expected seventh episode of the series the Cultural Revolution gets underway, something that Zhou will have to deal with until his dying day.  Aside from this, China's illustrious premier also has his hands full with a thousand other responsibilities, both foreign and domestic. 

 

Terms from this Episode:

Zhou Enlai   周恩来   China's beloved premier and statesman

Huai'an 淮安 City in Jiangsu Province, birthplace of Zhou Enlai

Jiangsu   江苏   Rich coastal province in China

Nankai Middle School 天津南开中学   Famed school where Zhou attended

Tianjin   天津   Municipality just east of Beijing

Whampoa Military Academy   中华民国陆军军官学校   Military academy located in Guangzhou

Jinggangshan   井冈山 Soviet base set up by Mao in the mountains of Jiangxi

Zhu De   朱德   PLA founder and legendary general

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   Great Chinese leader, persecuted by Mao during Cultural Revolution

Deng Xiaoping   邓小平 China's supreme leader in the 1980's

Yang Shangkun   杨尚昆   Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Peng Zhen   彭真 Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀   Great military hero of the PRC, former defense minister

Guiyang   贵阳   Capital of Guizhou Province

Guizhou   贵州   Interior province of China

Hebei   河北 Province in northern China

geming lao qu   革命老区 Revolutionary areas loyal to the CCP going back to the 2nd Sino-Japanese War

Boyan   伯延 A town near Wu'an (武安) in southern Hebei

Zhou Enlai de Sige Zhouye   周恩来的四个昼夜 Movie called "The Story of Zhou Enlai"

Wang Tiecheng   王铁成   Chinese actor famous for his portrayals of Zhou Enlai

Liu Bocheng   刘伯承   Great PLA general who worked closely with Deng Xiaoping

cunmin   村民   village people

Gu Mu   谷牧 1914-2009, great revolutionary, politician, vice-premier

Lin Biao   林彪 Great military hero of the PRC, former defense minister, later rabble rouser

Xinjiang 新疆   Autonomous region in China's northwest

lao gege   老哥哥   Old buddy

Deng Jiaxian 邓稼先   The father of China's nuclear program. Great nuclear physicist

Li Siguang   李四光 Great Chinese scientist, father of China's geomechanics program

Qian Sanqiang   钱三强 Great nuclear physicist

Zhongnanhai   中南海   China's top leadership compound adjacent to the Forbidden City

Luóbùpō  罗布破 Lop Nor in Xinjiang province

He Long   贺龙 Great PLA general

Ngo Dinh Diem 吴廷琰 President of South Vietnam 1955-1963

Yunnan   云南   Province in southwest China

Chen Yi   陈毅   Great Chinese leader, general, statesman, football fanatic

Sanxian jianshe   三线建设 The Third Front Movement

Qinghai   青海   Province in western China

Ningxia   宁夏   Autonomous region in the north of China

Sichuan   四川   Province in China also known as Szechwan

Gansu   甘肃    Province in western China

Chen Yun   陈云 Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Bo Yibo   薄一波   Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Li Fuchun   李富春 Leader and statesman in China, handled the planning of China's economy.

chi chuan yong   吃穿用 "Eat, Wear, Use"

biyaopin   必要品 Necessities of Life

riyongpin   日用品   Daily use items

Dongfang Hong   东方红   The East is Red

Jiang Qing   江青   Mao's last wife, among many other things, all negative.

Wu Han   吴晗   Ming dynasty expert, Beijing vice-mayor

Yao Wenyuan   姚文元   One of the Gang of Four

Wenhui Bao   文汇报   The Wenhui Bao, a Shanghai newspaper

Wuhan   武汉   City in Hubei on the Yangzi consisting of the cities of Hankou, Wuchang and Hanyang

Hangzhou   杭州   Capital of Zhejiang province

Zhong Fa   中发   A Central Directive, like an executive order

Luo Ruiqing  罗瑞卿   PLA great and later target of the Cultural Revolution

Ye Qun   叶群   PLA colonel and wife of Lin Biao

Xiao Xiangrong   肖向荣 Whampoa Military Academy grad, old revolutionary, Luo Ruiqing ally.

Yangzi   扬子江   The Yangtse River

Pao da siling bu   炮打司令部   Bombard the headquarters (Mao's first Big character poster)

Tan Zhenlin   谭震林 Another PLA great

Xu Xiangqian   徐向前 Another PLA great

Wang Guangmei   王光美   Wife of Liu Shaoqi

Song Qingling   宋庆龄   Wife of Sun Yat-sen, later a stateswoman of the PRC

Sun Weishi   孙维世 Adopted daughter of Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao

Sun Bingwen   孙炳文   Early CCP martyr, father of Sun Weishi

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超   Wife of Zhou Enlai, among many other things

You Tube link to The Zhou Enlai Story movie

Direct download: CHP-167-Zhou_Enlai_Part_7.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 9:47am EDT