The China History Podcast (podcasts)
CHP-163-Zhou Enlai Part 3

In this Part 3 episode the story of Zhou Enlai is taken all the way up to the 1943 Yan'an Rectification Campaign.  We'll look at the Zunyi Conference, the Long March, the Xian Incident and finally the ill-fated Second United Front.  At every historic moment, Zhou Enlai was there, playing a lead role.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Ruijin   瑞金   City on Fujian-Jiangxi border

Gu Shunzhang   顾顺章 Early CCP leader and later betrayer

Xiang Zhongfa   向忠发 Early CCP leader appointed by the Comintern.

Bo Gu 博古 One of the 28 Bolsheviks and right hand to Wang Ming

Zhu De   朱德 Founder of the Red Army

Guizhou   贵州 Western province in China

Liping   黎平 City in eastern Guizhou

Guiyang Capital of Guizhou Province

Zunyi   遵义 City just north of Liping

Zunyi Huiyi The Zunyi Conference

Wang Ming   王明 Comintern appointed CCP leader and head of the 28 Bolsheviks

Zhang Wentian 张闻天 Former 28 Bolshevik and Party leader who sided with Mao

Wang Jiaxiang 王稼祥 Another former 28 Bolshevik and Party leader who sided with Mao

Yang Shangkun 杨尚昆 Major CCP leader and later President of PRC

Zhang Guotao 张国焘 CCP founding member, Mao rival and later KMT defector

Lianghekou 两河口 Place in northern Sichuan, site of the Lianghekou Meeting 6/28/1935

Maoergai 毛儿盖 Place in northern Sichuan, site of the Maoergai Meeting in August 2935.

Dadu River 大渡河 River in Sichuan, site of a famous battle during the Long March retreat

Yang Lisan   楊立三 Future PRC minister, helped carry Zhou's stretcher during the Long March

Zong Hòuqín Bù 总后勤部 Logistics and supply division of the PLA

Fu Lianzhang 傅连暲 Nelson Fu, Western trained Chinese doctor who made the Long March

Deng Yingchao 邓颖超   Wife and lifelong partner of Zhou Enlai

Yang Hucheng 杨虎城 Nationalist general commanding the Northwest Army

Dongbei Jun 东北军 The Northeast Army

Zhang Xueliang 张学良 The Young Marshal, son of Zhang Zuolin, PRC hero, ROC villain.

Shao Shi   少师 Young Marchal

Zhang Zuolin   张作霖 The Manchurian Warlord, father of Zhang Xueliang

Jiu Yi Ba 九一八 September 18, 1931 the Mukden Incident

Pu Yi 溥仪 the Last Emperor, brought out of retirement to be the figurehead of Manchukuo

Manchukuo 满洲国 Japanese puppet state set up in Manchuria

Yan'an 延安 Revolutionary base of the CCP after the Long March

Shaanxi 陕西 Northwest province of China.

Xian 西安 Site of ancient Chinese capitals and the capital of Shaanxi Province

Xinhua 新华 New China

Luoyang   洛阳 Former imperial capital from ancient times, city in Henan

Tang Xuanzong   唐玄宗 The Tang Dynasty emperor who took the dynasty to great heights

Yang Guifei 杨贵妃 Tang Xuanzong's favorite concubine

H.H. Kung 孔祥熙 Husband of Song Ailing and consummate insider into ROC politics

Song Meiling 宋美龄 Madame Chiang Kai-shek

T.V. Soong 宋子文 Brother of the Soong Sisters

Chiang Ching-kuo   蒋经国 Future ROC president and son of Chiang Kai-shek

Song Qingling   宋庆龄   Madame Sun Yat-sen

Xikou   溪口 Near Ningbo, the birthplace of Chiang Kai-shek and location of the Young Marshal's first prison.

Ba Lu Jun 八路军 The Eighth Route Army

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀 Great Red Army general

Ye Ting  叶挺 Red Army general from the early days of the revolution

Xiang Ying 项英 Early CCP organizer and leader in the New Fourth Army

Chongqing   重庆 Wartime capital of China after it was removed from Nanjing and Wuhan

Lan Ping - Jiang Qing 蓝苹 - 江青 - Madame Mao

Xinhua Ribao 新华日报 the New China Daily.

Tai'erzhuang campaign 台儿庄会战 a.k.a. The Battle of Taierzhuang. The Rep. of China's first victory over the Japanese army.

Li Zongren 李宗仁 former Guangxi warlord together with Bai Chongxi

Bai Chongxi   白崇禧 former Guangxi warlord together with Li Zongren

Wuhan   武汉 City in Hubei made up of Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang

Bai Qiu'en 白求恩Norman Bethune

Dong Biwu   董必武 Early CCP leader and founding member

Chen Duxiu   陈独秀   CCP Co-Founder, along with Li Dazhao

Changsha 长沙 Capital of Hunan Province

Guilin 桂林 Picturesque city in Guangxi Province

Ye Jianying   叶剑英 Immortal Communist military leader and statesman

Dai Li 戴笠 Chiang Kai-shek's secret police chief

Shangguan Yunxiang   上官云相 KMT General, led the New Fourth Army Incident

Chen Yi   陈毅   Great general, Shanghai mayor, Foreign Minister

Liu Shaoqi 刘少奇 Great early CCP mover and shaker of a thousand talents. Prime target of the Cultural Revolution.

Yan'an Zhengfeng Yundong 延安整风运动 Yan'an Rectification Movement

Yundong 运动 Campaign or movement

Available for the holidays: The CHP Pu-Erh Tea - Gaiwan Gift Set

 

Also check out:

theanthill.org

"While We're Here"

earnshawbooks.com

 

and also....

Penguin Books China

 

"The Great Wall in 50 Objects" - William Lindesay

 

Shelia Melvin and Jindong Cai's "Beethoven in China: How the Composer Became an Icon in the People's Republic"

 

Direct download: CHP-163-Zhou_Enlai_Part_3.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 10:40am EDT

CHP-162-Zhou Enlai Part 2

In this second part of what's shaping up to be a long series, Laszlo picks up at the Zhongshan Gunboat Incident and follows the life of Zhou Enlai through the challenging years of 1926-1934.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Huai'an 淮安   Located in Jiangsu, birthplace of Zhou Enlai

Shenyang   沈阳 City in Liaoning Province

Tianjin   天津 Major city east of Beijing

Zhongshan Jian Shijian   中山舰事件 The Zhongshan Gunboat Incident

Wu Peifu   吴佩孚 Zhili Clique warlord

Sun Chuanfang 孙传芳 The Nanking Warlord

Duan Qirui   段祺瑞 China statesman and Anhui Clique warlord

Feng Yuxiang   冯玉祥 The "Christian Warlord" of the Zhili Clique

Zhang Zuolin   张作霖 The Manchurian Warlord

Wang Jingwei   汪精卫 Early leader of the Republic China

Fuxing lu   复兴路 Road in Shanghai formerly known as Rue Lafayette

Kang Sheng   康生 Early CCP secret police chief and later "godfather" of the Cultural Revolution

Chen Duxiu   陈独秀   CCP Co-Founder

Wang Shouhua 汪寿华 a key CCP leader in Shanghai and Labor leader

Du Yuesheng 杜月笙 Shanghai "Green Gang" crime boss

Zhao Shu 赵舒 Led Chiang Kai-shek's 26th Army. Saved Zhou's life.

Wuhan   武汉 City in Hubei made up of Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang

Li Dazhao   李大钊 CCP Co-Founder

Zhu De   朱德 Founder of the Red Army

He Long 贺龙 Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Lin Biao   林彪   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Ye Ting  叶挺 Red Army general from the early days of the revolution

Nanchang   南昌 Capital of Jiangxi Province

Lu Xun   鲁迅 One of the greatest writers of his age

Mao Dun   real name 沈德鸿, great writer and former Minister of Culture

Qiushou Qiyi 秋收起义   Mao's Autumn Harvest Uprising

Nie Rongzhen   聂荣臻 Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Chen Yi   陈毅   Great general, Shanghai mayor, Foreign Minister

Chaoshan   潮汕 Abbreviation for Chaozhou-Shantou

Chaozhou and Shantou 潮州和汕头 The twin cities of Chaozhou and Shantou in Guangdong

Xu Xiangqian 徐向前 Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Jinggangshan   井冈山 The cradle of the revolution, where Mao went after the Autumn Harvest Uprising

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超   Wife and lifelong partner of Zhou Enlai

Xiang Zhongfa   向忠发 Early CCP leader appointed by the Comintern.

Li Lisan   李立三 Xiang's right hand who also played a leadership role

Song Qingling   宋庆龄   Madame Sun Yat-sen

Zhongyang Teke 中央特科 The CCP secret police (中国共产党中央特别行动科)

Gu Shunzhang   顾顺章 Early CCP leader and later betrayer

Wang Ming   王明 Comintern appointed CCP leader and head of the 28 Bolsheviks

Bo Gu  博古 One of the 28 Bolsheviks and right hand to Wang Ming

Ruijin   瑞金   City on Fujian-Jiangxi border

Dai Li 戴笠 Chiang Kai-shek's secret police chief

Peng Dehuai   彭德华 Great Red Army general

Futian Incident 富田事变 December 1930 incident where a mutinous battalian was put down

Ningdu   宁都 Site of a famous pre-Zunyi Conference CCP meeting

Li De   李徳 Chinese name of Comintern agent Otto Braun

Xiang Ying 项英 Early CCP organizer and leader in the New Fourth Army

Tan Zhenlin   谭震林 Great Red Army general

Qu Qiubai   瞿秋白 CCP leader, literary figure and martyr

Chen Jitang 陈济棠 A Hakka NRA general who turned on Chiang Kai-shek

The Xinhai Revolution   辛亥革命 The event that began with the Wuchang Uprising 10-10-1911

Xiang River   湘江 Largest river in Hunan and a major tributary of the Yangzi.

Guizhou   贵州 Western province in China

Liping   黎平 City in eastern Guizhou

Miao   苗族 In Vietnam they're known as the Hmong. General term for a diverse minority people in China (as well as Laos, Vietnam). Over 200,000 in the US.

Zunyi   遵义 City just north of Liping

 

Direct download: CHP-162-Zhou_Enlai_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 4:57pm EDT

CHP-161-Zhou Enlai Part 1

In today's Part 1 episode Laszlo explores the early life of Zhou Enlai, growing up in a traditional scholar-official's family that had seen better days. Zhou gets passed from relative to relative. But each step of the way there were mentors and breaks that he was able to make the most of. We can see through his early years and into his teens how Zhou was perfectly trained and tested for the larger job that lay ahead.

 

CHP-161-Zhou Enlai Part 1 Terms

 

Zhou Enlai 周恩来 1898-1976

Jung Chang 张荣 British Chinese author famous for her critical biography of Mao Zedong and her book Wild Swans

Zhou zongli 周总理 Premier Zhou

Liu Shaoqi 刘少奇 One-time top Chinese leader, hounded to death during the Cultural Revolution

Lin Biao 林彪 Great military leader, later Mao's successor but not for long.

Wang Hongwen 王洪文 One of the Gang of Four and Mao's appointed successor but not for long.

Hua Guofeng 华国锋   Succeeded Mao in 1976 as Chairman of the Party

Deng Xiaoping 邓小平   Featured in CHP episodes 63-70

Huái'ān 淮安   City in northern Jiangsu province

Jiangsu 江苏   Province just north of Zhejiang

Shaoxing 绍兴   Historic city in Zhejiang, just west of Shanghai

Tianjin 天津 City in the north, just east of Beijing

Song Meiling 宋美龄   Madame Chiang Kai-shek

Zhou Panlong   周攀龙 Zhou Enlai's paternal grandfather

Zhou Yineng 周貽能 Zhou Enlai's father

Wan Dong'er 万冬儿 Zhou Enlai's natural mother

Lady Chen 陈氏 Zhou's 养母 or adoptive mother

Jiang Zhou's nurse who took care of him

Zhou Yigan 周贻淦 Zhou's uncle (younger brother of father)

shushu 叔叔 Uncle (younger brother of father)

didi 弟弟   Younger brother

muqin 母亲   Mother

ganma 干妈   Adoptive mother

waigong 外公   grandfather (father of one's mother)

Zhou Yiqian 周贻谦 Zhou's uncle (elder brother of father)

bofu 伯父   Uncle (elder brother of father)

Zhou Yigeng Uncle of Zhou Enlai who got led him to Tianjin

Zou Rong   邹容 Early revolutionary writer

Gemingjun 革命军 Revolutionary Army, Zou Rong's great work.

Kang Youwei 康有为   Reformer in the late 19th century

Liang Qichao 梁启超   Student of Kang Youwei who participated in the 100 Days of Reform

Nankai Middle School 天津南开中学

Yan Xiu 严修 Co-founder of Nankai Middle School

Zhang Boling 張伯苓 co-founder and president of Nankai

Jing Ye 敬业   Respect Work, Zhou Enlai's first journal

Xiao Feng 校风 School Wind School newspaper of Nankai

Chen Duxiu   陈独秀 Communist Party co-founder and writer

Xin Qingnian   新青年 Chen Duxiu's New Youth Magazine

Tianjin Xuesheng Lianhe Huibao 天津学生联合会包  Tianjin Student Union

Juewushe 觉悟社 Awakening Society

Deng Yingchao 邓颖超 Among other accomplishments, wife of Zhou Enlai

Yang Zhen Deng Yingchao's mother

Liu Qingyang 刘清扬 Early Communist Party member

Zhang Shenfu 张申府 Married to Liu Qingyang, another early Party operative

Li Dazhao 李大钊   CCP co-founder and librarian at Peking U

Guomintang 国民党 The KMT or Kuomintang

Li Fuchun 李富春 Longtime party leader, chairman of State Planning Commission

Nie Rongzhen 聂荣臻   Great military leader and called Father of China's Atomic Bomb

Zhu De 朱德   Red Army founder, great military leader

Chi Guang 赤光 Red Light, the journal printed in France

Guofu   国父 The Father of the Country (Sun Yat-sen)

Whampoa Military Academy 陆军官校 Funded and established by Soviets to train Chinese officers

Ye Jianying 叶剑英   Great military man and CCP stalwart

Chen Jiongming   陈炯明 Landlord in Guangdong, the target of the Eastern Campaign

Taiping Guan 太平馆 Restaurant in Guangzhou where Zhou and Deng Yingchao had a wedding reception.

Beijing Lu 北京路   Beijing Road

Zhongshan Gunboat Incident 中山舰事件 March 20, 1926, an incident that provoked a crackdown by Chiang Kai-shek against left leaning elements in the KMT as all Communists.

 

Go check out:

Nina Xiang's China Money Podcast

The Anthill - A Writer's Colony

The Sinica Podcast, a classic

Direct download: CHP-161-Zhou_Enlai_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:02pm EDT

CHP-160-Jack Jones and the FAU China Convoy 1945-1951

Jack Jones is the bearded one in the image.  His story is told today in this little snapshot of a not very well-known organization that operated in 1940's China.  The Friends Ambulance Unit, later re-named the Friends Service Unit, was a Quaker funded charity that operated ambulances, provided urgent medical care and other charitable services during wartime. In China the China Convoy was created and in consort with the International Relief Committee, distributed medicines, medical supplies and equipment that aided thousands of local and usually impoverished Chinese.  The convoy service ran from 1945 to 1951.  Through the discovery of the lost writings of Jack Jones, author Andrew Hicks has brought this small story back to life.  It's not a big story like the Chu-Han Contention or the Battle of Red Cliff or the Cultural Revolution.  It serves as a reminder that besides the information that made it into the history books....there was this stuff happening too in many places all over China.  I strongly suggest Andrews Hicks's book, available here: http://www.fauchinaconvoy.blogspot.com and here: http://quakerbooks.org.    

Go check out:  http://www.chinamoneynetwork.com hosted by Nina Xiang

Terms from this episode

Hakka 客家 Hakka people

Mao 毛泽东 Chairman Mao

Zhu De 朱德 PLA founder

Zhou Enlai 周恩来 The Premier of China

Sima Qian 司马迁 China's Herodotus Writer of the Shi Ji.

Chongqing 重庆 Former city in Sichuan, now a direct controlled Municipality

Xichang 西昌 City in southern Sichuan

Xikang 西康 Former province during the Nationalist days

Zhongguo laobaixing 中国老百姓 The Chinese people

Ba Xian Guo Hai 八仙过海 The Eight Immortals cross the sea, discussed in CHP-052

shi jing xiao min   市井小民 Common people

Chinese Industrial Cooperatives 工业合作社 Set up by George Hogg

Bailie School 培黎学校 School for orphans founded by George Hogg

Shandan, Gansu Province 甘肃山丹 City in Gansu where the first Bailie School was located

 

 

Direct download: CHP-160-Jack_Jones_and_the_FAU_1945-1951.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:12pm EDT

CHP-159-Chinese American Stars and Entertainers of Old Hollywood

In this episode Laszlo focuses on the history of Chinese Americans in the early years of Hollywood.  The period will focus on the 1920's to the 1950's.  During those years Asian Americans had a rough time in Hollywood trying to break away from stereotypical roles. American laws and attitudes stacked the deck against them but through their sacrifices and perseverance they blazed the trail for today's generation of Chinese-American movie, theater and TV artists.  CHP-159 looks at the lives of Anna May Wong and Jadin Wong as a window into these times. Below are the terms from this episode as well as some resources about Chinese Hollywood and Chinatowns.

Terms from this Episode

Marion Wong  黄女娣  Young film pioneer, established Mandarin Film Co. in 1916

Esther Eng    Producer, Director of Chinese language films in the US

James B. Leong  Chinese American actor between 1923-1960, directed Lotus Blossom in 1921.

Joseph Sunn Jue  The Darryl Zanuck of Chinatown, director and producer

Wong Chin Foo  王清福   Subject of Scott Seligman's book "The First Chinese American."

Anna May Wong   黄柳霜  1905-1961 American actress of the early days of Hollywood

Wong Sam Sing  黄善兴  Anna May Wong's father

Lee Gon Toy    Anna May Wong's mother

Taishan  台山  Historic town in the Pearl River delta region

Chang On  长安  Anna May Wong's father's ancestral village

Jadin Wong   黄玉美  Chinese American entertainer and later agent

Bok Kai Temple 北溪庙  Temple in Marysville, CA

Charlie Low  He built the Forbidden City nightclub in San Francisco

Arthur Dong 曾奕田 Documentary film maker, founder of Deep Focus Productions

Noel Toy  The Chinese Sally Rand, early Forbidden City club performer of risque dances

Coby Yee Entertainer and later owner of the Forbidden City

Haing S. Ngor吴汉润 Winner of the 1985 Oscar for Best Supporting actor for his unforgettable performance in the Killing Fields, gunned down in Chinatown in 1996.

Bessie Loo  Early Hollywood agent who specialized in roles for Asian American artists

John Lone  尊龙  Actor who played Pu Yi in Bertolucci's The Last Emperor

Joan Chen  陈冲  Actress who played in many roles in the 80's and 90's

Lucy Liu   刘玉玲  Reigning queen of Hollywood martial arts action films

Bai Ling  白灵 Actress who was also a client of Jadin Wong

David Henry Hwang  黄哲伦  Multi-talented artist best known for his play and film M. Butterfly

Larry Ching  The Chinese Sinatra, and a future CHP topic one day.

The Kim Loo Sisters  known as The Chinese Andrews Sisters

Dorothy Fong Toy  known as The Chinese Ginger Rogers

You Yat Mar  The Chinese Sophie Tucker

Chai Hong   The Chinese Chaplin

Barbara Jean Wong  The Chinese Shirley Temple

Nancy Kwan   关家蒨  Famous for her roles in The World of Suzie Wong and The Flower Drum Song

Keye Luke   陆锡麟  Best known for his role as Charlie Chan's Number One Son, Keye Luke had a very prolific and successful career in Hollywood.

Victor Sen Yung   杨森  Best known for his role as Hop Sing on Bonanza

Benson Fong   邝炳雄  Famous for many roles and for his Ah Fong's restaurants

Sammee Tong  Played John Forsyth's houseboy Peter Tong in The Bachelor Father TV series

Kam Fong  Most famous for his role as Chin Ho Kelly in the old Hawaii Five-0 series.

Tsai Chin   周采芹  Had a rich career on stage and on screen. Unforgettable in You Only Live Twice and The Joy Luck Club

Lisa Lu  卢燕  Three time Golden Horse Award winner. Still active in the movies and on TV since 1958.  Played the dying Empress Dowager Cixi in The Last Emperor.

James Wong Howe   黄宗霑  The immortal Hollywood cinematographer. Did over 130 films. Famous for Deep Focus cinematography. Nominated for ten Oscars, won two.  His own life was like a movie.

James Hong   吴汉章  One of the best known faces in Hollywood in over 500 roles on TV and in the movies. Played Lo Pan in John Carpenter's Big Trouble in Little China and Kahn, the butler in Chinatown.

 

Suggested Links for Further Study: 

Arthur Dong: Deep Focus Productions

Anna May Wong's IMDb Page

The Chinese American Museum, Los Angeles

The Chinese Historical Society of Southern California

Asian American Arts Alliance - Jadin Wong Award

 

Books: 

Forbidden City USA  - Book of the Arthur Dong documentary

"Anna May Wong: From Laundryman's Daughter to Hollywood Legend", Graham Russell Gao Hodges"

Scott Seligman amazon page

Jenny Cho amazon page 

Peter Kwong amazon page

Bonnie Tsui amazon page

Edward Said: Orientalism

 

Videos

Forbidden City USA DVD 

Hollywood Chinese - Arthur Dong documentary

Danwei TV Video on Anna May Wong with Sufei

Anna May Wong in The Toll of the Sea (YouTube) 

Anna May Wong in Bombs Over Burma (YouTube)

Anna May Wong The Lady From Chungking (You Tube)

Yunah Hong speaking about her documentary on Anna May Wong

Direct download: CHP-159-Chinese_American_Stars_and_Entertainers_of_Old_Hollywood.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 2:05am EDT

CHP-158-The Rise and Fall of the Qin Part 2

This time Laszlo finishes off the Qin in two parts as promised.  Apologies for the lopsidedness of it all.  In this extra long episode Laszlo takes the Qin to their height and examines their legacy.  The Qin Dynasty had a spectacular fall lasting only a few years after the early death of its founder Qin Shihuang.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Qin Shihuang  秦始皇  The First Qin Emperor, Ying Zheng

Shang Yang  商鞅  Great Qin statesman, helped make the Qin. 390-338 BCE

Qin    The kingdom and later dynasty, led by the Ying Clan.

Ying Zheng   嬴政  Qin Shihuang's name 

Duke Xiao   秦孝公  Qin Xiao Gong He lived 381 to 338 BCE

King Huiwen or King Hui  秦惠文王  King of Qin 338-311 BCE, son of Zhaoxiang

Chengdu   成都  Largest city and capital of Sichuan, site of the ancient Shu Kingdom

Qinling Mountains  秦岭Mountain range separating Shaanxi from Sichuan, also Qin Mountains (ling means mountain range)

Wei River   渭河  One of the major tributaries of the Yellow River

Shaanxi  西 Province in China, capital is Xian

Sichuan  四川  Province in southwest China

Shu  蜀国  Shu State near Chengdu

Shiniu Dao  石牛道 the Stone Cattle Road

Ba State   巴国  Ba State near Chongqing

Chongqing    Municipality formerly part of Sichuan

Wu Lizhen   吴理真  Planted seven tea trees on Mengding Mountain, first known tea cultivation

Mengding Shan  Mountain near Chengdu site of the first known cultivation of tea

Sanxingdui   三星堆  Archaeological discovery of an ancient non-Han civilization located halfway between Chengdu and Deyang.

Jinsha   金沙  Another great archaeological discovery near Chengdu.

Dujiangyan  都江堰  One of the most important irrigation projects in Chinese history. It tamed the Min River and  changed the face of agriculture in Sichuan.

Li Bing   李冰  The Qin governor down in Sichuan, directed construction of Dujiangyan.

Fan Sui  范睢  died 255 BCE, gave his king Zhaoxiang the winning strategy

King Zhāoxiāng, Qin Zhao Wang  昭襄王   Qin leader, reined 306-251 BCE

Bai Qi白起  Qin general served under Zhaoxiang.  Undefeated.

Meixian西眉 Mei County in Shaanxi, west of Xian.

Ren Tu   The Butcher of Men, Bai Qi's nickname (well-earned I might add)

Si Da Ming Jiang  四大名将  the four great generals of the day.  Bai Qi白起, Lian Po  , Li Mu李牧 and  Wang Jian 王翦

Battle of Changping   长平之战 The bloody battle where the Qin demolished the Zhao 262-260 BCE

Chu State   楚国  Chu State  near Hubei

Zuo Shu zhang 秦朝左庶 left militia general

Han    The Han Sate, sandwiched between Chu, Qin and Wei

Wei  魏国  Kingdom of Wei, east of Qin, south of Zhao

Yichuan County  伊川is located in Henan just south of Luoyang near the famous Longmen Grottoes.

The Longmen Grottoes  龙门石窟  UNESCO Heritage site containing thousands of statues of Buddha and paintings.

Battle of Yique伊阙, near modern day Longmen, 293 BCE Qin defeated the combined armies of Wei and Han.

Sima Cuo  马错 Qin general. Advised Huiwen to annex Shu and Ba

Huaxia    Ancient core China early name

Zhao     Zhao State  in the Yellow River Valley

Handan   City in Hebei Province, also the capital of Zhao

Zhao Kuo   Son Zhao She, got beat bad at the Battle of Changping

Zhao SheZhao general who once gave the Qin a lickin'

chengyu   Chinese saying or proverb, usually but not always four characters

zhishang tan bing   To discuss military strategy on paper

King Xiaocheng孝成王 King of Zhao who pulled Lian Po from the roster and put in Zhao Kuo

Huaihai Campaign   淮海One of the three final campaigns of the Chinese Civil War of 1948-49.

Sima Qian    China's Herodotus, writer of the Records of the Grand Historian

Gaoping 高平  County level city in southeast Shanxi, site of the Battle of Changping

Shanxi   山西 Province in China just east of Shaanxi

Shennong     The Divine Farmer, legendary discoverer of tea who gifted the Shen Nong Classic of Herbal Medicine.

Yan Di    炎帝 The Flame Emperor, considered to be Shennong

Zhou  周朝  The Zhou Dynasty

Ji clan    家族  The Zhou Dynasty ruling family

King Nǎn, Zhou Nan Wang周赧王 Last emperor of the Zhou Dynasty

King Xiaowen 秦孝文王 Also known as Lord Anguo, Qin Shihuang's grandfather. Didn't reign too long.

Shi Ji     The Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian

Han Dynasty  汉朝 One of China's greatest dynasties 206 BCE-220 CE

Lü Buwei  吕不韦  The man who put Qin Shihuang's father on the throne. Regent for young Qin Shihuang.

Zhao Ji 赵姬 Qin Shihuang's mother and a lover to many men (so says Sima Qian)

Lao Ai  嫪毐 Introduced to Zhao Ji after she became the Queen Dowager, tried and failed to seize power

Li Si   李斯 Took the philosophy of Legalism to great heights. Qin Shihuang's right hand man.

Zhao Gao 赵高 Palace eunuch who conspired with Li Si against Qin Shihuang's wishes.

Fu Su   扶苏 Qin Shihuang's heir, tricked into committing suicide

Hu Hai  胡亥 Younger son of Qin Shihuang, allowed Lao Ai and Li Si to stack the deck and allow him to become the new emperor

Meng Tian  蒙恬  Great Qin general who did most of his fighting in the north.  Key person in the construction of the Great Wall

Wey StateDifferent from Wei State 魏国.  Absorbed by Jin before it broken upLü Buwei was from Wey.

Zichu 子楚 Other name of Qin Shihuang's father and later King Zhuangxiang.

Lady Huayang  阳夫人 Wife of Qin King Xiaowen

Zhengguo Canal  郑国渠  joined together the Jing and Luo Rivers, both tributaries of the Wei. Named after the builder Zheng Guo

Chelie 车裂  An ancient punishment where a person was tied to five chariots and pulled apart.

Lin Biao  林彪  Great military man and one time heir to Chairman Mao.

Jing Ke  荆轲  Assassin from Yan who wasn't able to bury his poison dagger into Ying Zheng

Yan   燕国  Yan State near Beijing

Chen Kaige 陈凯Great Chinese film director. The Emperor and the Assassin

Gong Li  巩俐  Famous and talented Chinese actress

Zhang Yimou 张艺谋 One of the great film directors of China

Xiang Yu     The hegemon of Chu State, fought Liu Bang and lost.  Featured in CHP episode 91

Qi     Qi State  near Shandong

Zibo 淄博 Former capital of the Qi State

Lu  鲁国  State to the south of Qi.  Confucius came from Lu.

Qi Lu Liangguo 齐鲁两国  The two Shandong kingdoms of Qi and Lu

Shandong     Northeastern province of China

Wang Ben  王贲 Son of one of the four great generals of the Warring States period

Zhou Wu Wang 周武王 Co-founder of the Zhou, brother of the Duke of Zhou

Shang Dynasty   商朝  The Shang Dynasty 1600 BCE - 1046 BCE

King Zhou  Last Shang King, and a wicked one at that. Also known as Di Xin

Huangdi  皇帝  Emperor

San Huang Wu Di   三皇五帝  The mythical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors

Shi'er Jinren  十二金人  Twelve Gold Men made from all the melted down weapons handed in from the defeated warring states

Xianyang   咸阳 Near modern day Xian. Capital of Qin

Lingnan   岭南the southern region of China comprising mostly Guangdong and Guangxi

Guangdong 广东 southernmost province of continental China and a rich one at that

Guangxi  广西 An autonomous region just west of Guangdong

Fujian  福建  Province just north of Guangdong

Baiyue百越 The Hundred Yue

Nanyue  南越 the southern Yue

Tu Sui  屠睢  Qin general who got schooled when he invaded the Lingnan region

Han Wudi 汉武帝 Great conquering emperor of the Western Han Dynasty

beifang caoyuan 北方草原  The grasslands of the north

Xiongnu  匈奴  Also referred to sometimes as the Huns, a northern nomadic people

Xiang Jiang  湘江 The Xiang River

Dongting Lake  洞庭湖 the dividing marker between Hubei and Hunan.

Guilin  桂林 Gorgeous city in Guangxi

Li Jiang  漓江 the Li River (not to be confused with the other Li River

Min 岷江  Min River in Sichuan, tamed by the Dujiangyan irrigation project

Lingqu Canal 灵渠 The Ling Canal...linked the Xiang with the Li

Qinchao Sanda Shuiligongcheng秦朝三大水利工程  The three great irrigation project of the Qin

Shi Lu史禄  Architect of the Ling Qu, the Ling Canal

zhishi fenzi分子 intellectuals

Huizong 宋徽宗  Song Dynasty emperor, featured in a CHP four-part series

Siku Quanshu 四库全书  The Emperor's Four Treasures, commissioned by Qianlong. 36,381 Volumes divided up into 79,000 chapters, over two million pages and about 800 million characters.

Dapingtai Village 大平台村  The village in Hebei where the Qin emperor died

Qin Èrshì  秦二世  The Second Qin Emperor

Dazexiang Uprising  大泽乡起义The first major uprising against the Qin - July to December in the year 209 BCE

Chen Sheng陈胜also known as Chen SheOne of the leaders of the Dazexiang Uprising

Wu Guang  吴广 The other leader of the Dazexiang Uprising

Liu Bang   刘邦  Han Dynasty founder

Wu Xíng 五刑  The Five Pains.  Tattooing the face, nose cut off, foot cut off, private parts cut off and the fifth pain for Li Si was the old Yāozhǎn.  Cut in half at the waist

Ziying  子婴  The third and final Qin emperor, reigned for 46 days

Battle of Julu  钜鹿之战  fought near present day Xingtai in Hebei, Xiang Yu, leading the Chu army knocked the Qin army out clean in 207 BCE

Luoyang   洛阳  Eastern capital of the Zhou Dynasty

Sanmenxia 三门峡City in Henan in the cradle of Chinese civilization

Nanhai Commandery南海郡 The Qin office that administered the two Guang's, based near Guangzhou

Zhao Tuo  赵佗  Qin officer in charge of the Nanhai Commandery. Founded the Nanyue Kingdom

Lüshi Chunqiu  氏春秋 Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals.

banliangqian  半两钱 Qin standardized coin that weighed eight liang

banliang  半两 half a liang. 16 liang equaled a jin One Jin was 0.604 kilos or 1.3 lbs

banjin baliang  半斤八两 Our English version of six of one and a half dozen of the other.

 

Historic Teas of China available at Teasenz.com

The Link is here:  HISTORIC TEAS OF CHINA

The Teas you get: 

1.     Dahongpao from Wuyi Mountain, Fujian

2.     Tieguanyin 铁观 from Anxi, Fujian

3.     Huangshan Maofeng黄山毛峰from Huang Shan Anhui Province

4.     Longjing 西湖from West Lake, Hangzhou

5.     Two kinds of raw Pu-erh 普洱 tea in loose and brick form.

 

Two books I used prodigiously for this Qin Two-Part series:

 

Frances Wood, "The First Emperor of China"

 

Mark Edward Lewis: "The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han"

Direct download: CHP-158-The_Rise_and_Fall_of_the_Qin_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 1:17am EDT

CHP-156-Joseph Needham Part 2

In this Part 2 episode Laszlo continues his intro of Joseph Needham in 1943 right after Needham returned from his perilous adventure to the northwest of China to visit the sights of Dunhuang.  We'll conclude the life of Joseph Needham in this episode. He truly was, as Simon Winchester called him, "The Man Who Loved China."

 

 

 

Terms from this episode:

 

Jianqiao Daxue yu Zhongguo Daxue hezuo weiyuanhu剑桥大学与中国大学合作委员会The Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office, the

Mogao Grottoes   莫高窟  The caves at Dunhuang where so much Buddhist treasure was found.

Chongqing     Former wartime capital of China also known as Chungking

Fujian province  福建省 Province on the east coast of China below Zhejiang

Fuzhou   福州  Capital of Fujian

Kunming   昆明  Capital of Yunnan

Zhongguo Kēxué jìshù shi 中国科学技  Science and Civilization in China

Nantong  南通  City in Jiangsu

Jiangsu   江苏  Province on east coast of China north of Zhejiang

Wang Ling   王玲  Chinese and Australian educator and researcher

Lizhuang   李庄  City located on the banks of the Yangzi

Sichuan   四川  Province in the soutwest next door to Tibet

Zhú Kězhēn  竺可桢  Professor Coching Chu, Zhejiang University president 1936-49.

Gǔjīn Túshū Jíchéng   古今图书集成  Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings of Ancient and Modern Times

Lu Guizhen   鲁桂珍 (1904-1991) Biochemist and long-time assistant to Needham

Xiangqi   象棋 Chinese version of chess

Guō Mòruò    郭沫若 great writer, poet and archaeologist 

Shenyang   沈阳  Capital of Liaoning, also known in the past as Mukden

Lu Shiguo   鲁仕国  Father of Lu Guizhen

Zhongguo   中国  China, the Middle Kingdom

Qián Cúnxùn    Professor T.H. Tsien (Tsien Tsuen-hsuin).  A giant in Chinese library science.  Wrote Volume V, Part 1 on paper and printing.

Simon Winchester's amazon page click here

Direct download: CHP-155-Jospeh_Needham_Part_2.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 11:35am EDT

CHP-155-Joseph Needham Part 1

In this long awaited topic Laszlo introduces "The Man Who Loved China", Dr. Joseph Needham.  A true friend of China for most of his adult life, Needham's contribution was the epic work "Science and Civilization in China".  Today this massive undertaking is spread out over 24 volumes, 17 of which were written in Needham's own lifetime.  Prior to Jospeh Needham getting the word out, China was not getting the respect it deserved for all its great contributions to human civilization.  He carried out intensive research and brought his findings to the public.  In this Part 1 episode we only go up to 1943 and the end of Needham's first expedition in China. 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Zhongguo Kexue jìshù shi  中国科学技  Science and Civilization in China

Lu Guizhen   桂珍  (1904-1991) Biochemist and long-time assistant to Needham

Luo Zhongshu   罗忠恕  (1903-1985) Scholar who got the word out in the west about China's suffering under Japan.

Jianqiao Daxue yu Zhongguo Daxue hezuo weiyuanhui

剑桥大学与中国大学合作委员会  Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office

Lu Shiguo鲁仕国  Father of Lu Guizhen

luohou  落后  backwards

Chongqing  重庆  Former wartime capital of China also known as Chungking

Huang Xingzong  H.T. Huang

Min River   岷江  Great river of China where Dujiangyan is located

Dadu River  大渡河  Another tributary of the Yangzi

Lushan  芦山  City in Sichuan near Ya'an, (written in the book as Loushan)

Lizhuang  李庄 City located on the banks of the Yangzi

Anyang   安阳 City in northern Henan where the Shang period Yin Ruins are located

Wang Yuanlu  圆箓  The guy who got duped into selling 24 wagon loads of treasure, including the Diamond Sutra to Aurel Stein for about 220 quid.

Hanzhong   汉中   City in Shaanxi

Baoji    Another city in Shaanxi

Shaanxi   西  One of the great ancient provinces of China

Jiayuguan  嘉峪关  End of the line as far as the Great Wall went. 

Dunhuang   敦煌  Great trading city and center for Buddhist learning.

Liao Hongying   鸿Chemist, Worked for British Council in Chengdu

Dujiangyan  都江堰  One of the greatest civil irrigation projects in human history that provided benefits to hundreds of millions of people since it was built in 256 BCE

Qin Shihuang   秦始皇 The Qin emperor

Li Bīng   李冰  The official credited with overseeing the entire Dujiangyan project.

Shu kingdom   蜀国 The Kingdom located in and around where present-day Chengdu is located.

Shuangshipu  双石A town near Baoji in Shaanxi

Héxī Corridor河西走廊  The geographic region running east and west inside Gansu Province.  It was an ancient road from thousands of years ago.

Mogao Caves  莫高窟  The caves at Dunhuang where so much Buddhist treasure was found.

Northern Zhou  北周  (557-581) A northern Dynasty during the Northern & Southern Dynasties Period

Nanbei Chao   南北朝  (420-589) The Northern and Southern Dynasties Period

Yang Jian    杨坚 Former Northern Zhou official who went on to found the Sui Dynasty.

Simon Winchester amazon.com page:  http://www.amazon.com/Simon-Winchester/e/B000APLU5E/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1435163989&sr=8-1

 

Direct download: CHP-155-Jospeh_Needham_Part_1.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 7:49pm EDT

CHP-154-The Secret Nüshu Script

In this shorter than usual episode Laszlo introduces a little piece of culture taken from the southern portion of Hunan Province.  Generations of illiterate women from a single county on the Hunan-Guangxi border, denied education, created their own writing script.  Men never learned it and so it was used by these women to communicate with each other and to record their secret throughts and inspirations.  Almost lost to posterity, Nüshu has made somewhat of a revival and today others are learning it and keeping it alive. 

Terms from this Episode

 

Nüshu   

Shang Dynasty  商朝  The Shang Dynasty

Xiangnan Tuhua  湘南土  The local dialect of southern Hunan

Chengguan Tuhua  城关土  The dialect in and around Shangjiangxu Town

Cun    Village

Jiangyong County   江永 

Hunan  湖南  Province in China

Guangxi  广西 Province in China

Guilin  桂林  City in Guangxi

Shen Nong    You all remember him from the Tea Series, right??

Yao People  瑶族  The Yao minority people, also called the Dao in Vietnam

Shangjiangxu Town  上江圩  Ground Zero for Nüshu culture, located in Jiangyong County

Nüshu wenhua  文化  Nüshu Culture

Jiebai Zimei  拜姊妹  Sworn Sisters

Laotong  老同  “Old Same” A very close relationship arranged between two girls.  It lasted a lifetime

Jiangyong Xian 江永 Jiangyong County

Sanzhao  三朝  A custom followed on the third day after marriage or after birth

Sanzhaoshu  三朝  The Third Day Book

Xianfeng Emperor  咸丰帝

Guangxu Emperor  

Yang Huanyi    The last person who actually lived the Nüshu Culture.

Puyi     The Last Emperor

Putonghua  普通  Mandarin (language)

Zhou Shuoyi    Researcher who did much to revive Nüshu Culture

Yang Yueqing  月清 Canadian Film maker

 

 

Lisa See  http://www.lisasee.com/

Lisa See’s Novel about Nüshu, Snow Flower and the Secret Fan

 

Learn Mandarin at MSL MASTER:  http://mslmaster.com

 

Yang Yueqing’s documentary “Nü Shu: A Hidden Language of Women in China”

http://www.wmm.com/filmcatalog/makers/fm432.shtml

Direct download: CHP-154-The_Secret_Nushu_Script.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 9:12am EDT

CHP-153-The History of Opium in China

In this episode Laszlo examines remarks made by distinguished UCLA Professor of Public Policy Mark Kleiman who had commented on Britain's participation in the Opium War.  The main point was that the cause of the Opium War was due more to protecting imperial tax revenues and the domestic market than trying to stamp out the opium problem. Opium's history in China began centuries before, at least during the Tang and maybe as far back as the Eastern Jin.  The focus of this episode is on opium's history in China prior to the Opium War.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

lao pengyou  老朋友   Old friends.

Xia Dynasty  夏朝

Shang Dynasty  商朝

Eastern Zhou 

Eastern Jin  

Nanfang Caomu Zhuang  南方草木装  Western Jin Scholar Ji Han (嵇含)

A Fu Rong 阿芙蓉  Ancient name for opium

A Fei Rong 阿肥蓉   Another name for opium

He Fu Rong 合甫融  Another name for opium

Yapian   Opium from the Arabic / Persian work afyun

Jiu Tang Shu  旧唐  The Old Book of Tang

Chen Cangqi’s Bencao Shiyi  陈藏器,本草拾遗   the Supplement to the Materia Medica

Tang Xuanzong  唐玄宗  Tang emperor on duty when the dynasty peaked a second time.

Southern Song  南宋 

Ying Su poppy

Su Dongpo    苏东  a.k.a. Su Shi  苏轼

Xu Boling  徐伯 Wrote in 1483 about opium’s use in China as an aphrodisiac

Siku Quanshu    The Complete Library of the Four Treasures

Qianlong 乾隆帝  The long reigning Qianlong emperor

Yongle Emperor   大典  Yongle Encyclopedia

Xie Zhaozhe  肇淛 lived in late 16th – early 17th century Ming Dynasty China was a prolific writer of books

Ming Chenghua  明成化  Ming emperor

chunyao    aphrodisiac

Li Shízhēn 李時珍 Compendium of Materia Medica, the Bencao Gangmu 本草 - 1578

Tainan  台南  City on south coast of Taiwan

Madak  达克  Mixture of opium and tobacco

Ming Chongzhen  明崇  Final Ming emperor, committed suicide when the dynasty fell

Wan Li Emperor 明万  Ming emperor

Shisan Ling   十三陵  the Thirteen Ming Tombs just north of Beijing

Dingling  定陵  The Wanli Emperor's Tomb, excavated in 1956

Lady Zheng  郑贵  Wanli Emperor’s favorite consort

Kangxi emperor  康熙  Great and long reigning Qing emperor

Yongzheng Emperor   雍正  Successor to the Kangxi emperor

Jiajing Emperor  嘉靖  Qing emperor who followed the Qianlong emperor

Daoguang emperor  道光   Qing emperor who was on duty when the roof caved in on China

da Tu   大土  Patna opium (big soil)

xiao tu   小土  Malwa opium (马尔瓦鸦片) (small soil)

gong tu   公土   Another name for Malwa opium common soil.

Lin Zexu    Chinese hero who stood up to Britain

Zhang Changjia  昌甲 wrote a book in 1878 called “Opium Talk”, Yan Hua. 

Pu Yi    The last Qing emperor

Empress Wanrong  婉容皇后  Empress of China’s last emperor Pu Yi

Chen Chong    Joan Chen

Du Yuesheng   杜月笙  Big-Ears Tu

Yapian Guan   鸦片馆  An opium house

Yan Guan     An opium house

Ying chou   迎抽 A welcome smoke offered a gues upon arriving at your house

Shen Nong    

Lu Yu     

 

ChineseSkill: Find it at http://www.chinese-skill.com/cs.html

Download the free APP and start learning to speak Mandarin like the Pro's!

 

For more on opium and eroticism in Chinese literature:

Keith McMahon http://kmcmahon.faculty.ku.edu//

Professor, Chinese Language and Literature
East Asian Languages and Cultures
University of Kansas
 

Peter Lee's Opium Culture amazon link

Narcotic Culture - A History of Drugs in China

Direct download: CHP-153-The_History_of_Opium_in_China.mp3
Category:Podcasts -- posted at: 6:24pm EDT