Sun, 22 May 2016
In this long overdue episode with a deceiving title we don't actually get around to the Yuan Dynasty. However a nice handy and confusing overview tracing the rise of the Mongol nation is presented which includes a bio on Genghis Khan. We'll get to rise of Kublai Khan this time and look at the Yuan Dynasty next episode.
Terms from this Episode
numero ciento sesenta y nueve Number 169
Qin Shihuang 秦始皇 Qin Dynasty founder
Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty
Parthians 帕提亚 Iranian nomadic people
Scythians 斯基泰人 Iranian nomadic people
Yuezhi 月氏 Originally from Xinjiang and Gansu, defeated by the Xiongnu
Goths 哥特 West central Asian power, the scourge of the Roman Empire
Magyars 马扎儿人 West central Asian power. Today they are known as Hungarians.
Huns 匈奴 More from the western part of the steppe, often confused with Xiongnu
Xiongnu 匈奴 Often called Huns, they were an early northern tribe who kept invading China
Slavs 斯拉夫人 People from central Europe and the West Asian steppe
Xianbei 鲜卑 So-called "proto-Mongols" who lived around the Qin and Han dynasties and founded the Northern Wei.
Shatuo Turks 沙陀突厥 Power in north China late 9th and 10th century. Founded several short-lived dynasties in the north of China.
Khitans 契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125
Tatars 鞑靼人 Mongol tribe defeated by Genghis Khan who later moved westward towards Russia and Europe
Kazakhs 哈萨克人 North-Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
Kyrgyz 吉尔吉斯 Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kyrgyzstan
Uighurs 维吾尔人 Turkic people who today mostly live in Xinjiang
The Hakkas 客家人 The Hakka People
Fujian 福建 Province on the east coast of China
Huizong 徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song
Aguda 阿骨打 Also known as Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jin Dynasty
Wuqimai 吴乞买 Aguda's brother, second emperor of the Jin
Kaifeng 开封 Capital of the Northern Song Dynasty
Jin Dynasty 金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda
Zhao Gou 赵构 Escaped Zhao royal family member, launched Southern Song
Gaozong 高宗 First emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty
Lin'an 临安 Southern Song capital, present day Hangzhou
Merkits 蔑儿乞人 One of many tribes of the Mongols
Keraits 怯烈亦 One of many tribes of the Mongols
Ongüts 汪古部 One of many tribes of the Mongols
Ongirats One of many tribes of the Mongols
Naimans 乃蛮 One of many tribes of the Mongols
Temüjin 铁木真 Genghis Khan's name
Dobun Known as Dobun the Clever, married to Alan the Fair, early ancestors of Temujin
Ah-Lan the Fair married to Dobun, early ancestors of Temujin
Khaidu 海都 c. 1040-1100 Great-grandfather of Khabul Khan
Khabul Khan 合不勒 Early great khan and great -grandfather of Genghis Khan
Yesugei the Brave 孛儿只斤也速该 Father of Genghis Khan
Yuanchao Mi Shi 元朝秘史 The Secret History of the Mongols
Börte 孛儿帖 Wife of Temüjin and later Grand Empress of the Mongol Empire
Ulaan Bator 乌兰巴托 Capital of Mongolia
Jochi 术赤 Oldest son of Börte and maybe Genghis Khan
Golden Horde 金帐汗国 Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.
Xinjiang 新疆 Northwest autonomous region in China
Mongol Yasa (Jasagh) A Mongol Codified law introduced by Genghis Khan
Khuriltai 忽里勒台 A Mongol congress of all elders and leaders
Kara Khitai 喀喇契丹 Also known as the Western Liao 1124-1218
Xixia 西夏 The Western Xia, an empire established by the Tanguts
Khwarizmian Empire 花剌子模王国 Lasted 1077-1231. Khwarazmia covered All of Iran and parts of Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan.
Batu 拔都 Founder of Golden Horde, son of Jochi, grandson of Genghis Khan
Chaghadai 蔡合台 Second son of Genghis Khan, founder of Khanate of Chaghadai
Khanate of Chaghadai 蔡合台汗国 Covered most of Central Asia
Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire
Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan
Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan
Kublai 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.
Hulagu 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui
Arigh Boke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai
Subotei 速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.
Dzungaria 准噶尔 Northern half of Xinjiang with Tianshan Mountains south and the Altai north.
Karakorum 喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260
Guyuk 贵由 Eldest son of Ogedai Khan, reigned only two years as the 3rd Great Khan
Mamluks 马木留克 Originally slave soldiers, they were a powerful "caste" of warriors who operated from the 9th to 19th centuries. Not to be messed with.
Il-khanate 伊儿汗国 The southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire. Ruled by Hülagü's branch of the family - centered around Iran
Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.
Owen Lattimore 欧文拉铁摩尔 American scholar and Central Asian specialist
Isaac Meyer: “History of Japan Podcast”
Nina Xiang: "China Money Network"